Rabu, 31 Maret 2010

Troubleshooting a Ford 4.9 Engine

Troubleshooting a Ford 4.9 Engine

When you don't know exactly what you are looking for, troubleshooting an engine can consume a lot of time. For every knocking sound and symptom affecting overall driving quality, there can be two to three symptom that merit investigation. Ford vehicles come equipped with a tool that can help. All Fords manufactured in 1996 and later include a second generation On-Board Diagnostics system. For Fords 1995 and earlier, there is the fourth version of Electronic Engine Control. Neither system will give you an exact answer, but they will point you in the right direction.

Instructions

EEC-IV Self Test For 1995 Fords and Earlier

    1

    Start the Ford and let the engine run for as long as it takes to warm the engine. To facilitate this, you should leave the air conditioning off. Once running temperature has been reached, shut the engine off and open the engine compartment.

    2

    Connect the Self Test Output and the Self Test Input ports with jumper wire. The STI is a single port on a wire, and the STO is a multi-sided hub with six slots. They will be next to each other and in the rear of the engine. One end of the jumper needs to go into the STI, and the other needs to go into the STO's bottom left grounding slot.

    3

    Turn the Ford engine on, but leave the engine uncranked and off. Wait for the check engine light to start turning on and off. The interval of lights represents a diagnostic code. For instance, EEC-IV code 32 will be three lights followed by two shorter lights. EEC-IV code 48 will be four lights followed eight shorter lights. There will always be a few seconds pause between whole code numbers. Write all the codes down.

    4

    Look up Ford's EEC-IV coding explanations on the web. You will quickly discover that Ford owner's manual does not contain this information. If you are considering a lot of DIY maintenance for your Ford, you should purchase a Haynes Repair Manual for your model and year. This manual will not only have for EEC-IV codes listed, but will also offer detailed repair descriptions. Copy the explanations next to the numbers you jotted down in Step 3.

    5

    Begin at the top of your list and investigate the parts of the engine that correspond with the EEC-IV light codes. Cross off codes once you know they are not part of the problems your Ford is currently experiencing.

OBD-II Diagnostics for 1996 Fords and Later

    6

    Connect your OBD-II code reader to your Ford's diagnostic outlet. This Data Link Connector should be uncovered, easy to access, and beneath the dash, within the general area of the steering column, the gas pedal, or the hood release. If you cannot find the DLC outlet, consult your code reader's handbook for specific suggestions.

    7

    Activate your code reader. You may own a code reader that will turn it itself on once it recognizes a connection with your Ford. Code readers also function slightly differently by brand, so always defer to the step by step instructions in the reader's manual.

    8

    Turn the Ford's electrical system on. Some code reader may also require you to start the engine as well. Wait for the code reader to auto-retrieve trouble and pending codes. Some readers will not do this and will require you to enter the command by hand.

    9

    Look up the explanations for the OBD-II codes retrieved. Your manual may have the codes universal to all OBD-II compliant vehicles, but it may not offer Ford's supplemental codes. Your Ford's manual will not have these codes either. Look those up online. Make a list of codes and explanations. Place the trouble codes at the top, and pending codes at the bottom. Trouble codes are responsible for the check engine light going off, so always investigate those first.

    10

    Troubleshoot the Ford's engine with your list of codes as a guide. Work your way down the list until you have checked every code you retrieved from the system.

Selasa, 30 Maret 2010

What Does It Mean If Your Steering Wheel Is Hard to Turn to the Left?

What Does It Mean If Your Steering Wheel Is Hard to Turn to the Left?

Any malfunctions that affect a vehicle's steering capabilities are cause for alarm, as the inability to maneuver around traffic or other obstacles might result in a collision. Precise control is fundamental to safe operation of a vehicle. Several factors may be responsible for steering that binds in one direction or another. Mechanical, hydraulic or electronic components could hinder correct function of a steering system. Component repair or replacement may restore proper steering, once other possibilities are eliminated.

Component Damage

    Vehicles that are involved in a collision can incur steering component damage that may escape notice under light inspection. The slightest distortion of the chassis, or defective moving parts, can result in erratic handling characteristics. Exact geometry is key to wheel alignment and steering performance, and any chassis damage or worn parts could upset the precise motions required. A steering column shaft that is slightly bent can bind in the housing bearings under certain circumstances.

Steering Gears

    Gears set into motion by the steering wheel provide the force needed to change the direction of the front wheels. Whether they are rack and pinion or recirculating ball, gear conditions and adjustments must be correct. Rack and pinion internal components are not serviceable, and any discrepancies require replacement of the entire assembly. Recirculating ball-type gears may bind in one direction if bearings and sector shafts are worn beyond limits, or require adjustment.

Power Steering

    Power steering fluid can become contaminated by a failed part that emits dislodged pieces into the hydraulic system. Replacement component warranties are voided if the system is not flushed before installation of new or re-manufactured parts. Any debris in the system can restrict or block flow through the intricate valves that direct the fluid pressure. Hydraulic pressures in steering systems can reach more than 1,500 pounds per square inch, and any blockage can restrict wheel movement severely.

Up Front

    Wheel movement may be obstructed by curbing or parking lot stops, but is soon remedied by vehicle travel. More complicated problems arise with the recent advances in steering systems. Some heavier late-model vehicles may be equipped with electronic devices meant to boost power assist at parking lot speeds. The intended function is to ease steering wheel movement while parking, but a malfunction in this circuitry may randomly produce steering hardness at normal travel speeds.

Problems With High-Amperage Alternators

Problems With High-Amperage Alternators

The high-amperage or high-output alternator is required for vehicles that need more electricity to run additional accessories. The alternator is the main electrical source for the vehicle when it operates; the battery is used only when starting the vehicle or when the vehicle's engine is turned off. The high-amperage alternator does come with its own set of problems because of all the accessories it has to power.

Serpentine Belt Tension

    The serpentine belt is the engine component that turns the high-amperage alternator pulley and the alternator rotor. This rotation is what produces voltage by contacting alternator brushes and building up magnetism, which sends the voltage through the stator. Proper tension on the serpentine belt must be maintained in order for the high amperage alternator rotor to turn fast enough to produce enough voltage to run all the accessories. If the serpentine belt is not tight enough, then some accessories will not work because of a lack of voltage. Fuses will blow and the battery will lose charge, causing the vehicle to die or stall.

Worn Brushes

    The high-amperage alternator's brushes can wear out under normal driving conditions. The brushes create the magnetic field that builds up the voltage in the high-amperage alternator. Once these brushes begin to wear, they fail to make enough contact with the alternator to create enough magnetism or voltage. The lack of voltage will cause the vehicle to slowly lose charge. As a result, engine components and accessories will not operate properly. In this case, the high-amperage brushes must be replaced.

Faulty Voltage Regulator

    The voltage regulator tells the high-amperage alternator to produce more voltage once the the voltage level falls below a designated level. If more accessories, such as the front and rear heater, radio, headlights or other electrical accessories, are being operated at the same time, more voltage needs to be produced by the high-amperage alternator. The voltage regulator tells the high-amperage alternator when to produce voltage and when enough voltage is produced. For example, if most of the electrical devices are being operated at the same time and the voltage of the vehicle drops below 13.5 volts, the voltage regulator signals the high-amperage alternator to produce more voltage. Once the voltage regulator fails, the alternator stops producing voltage.

The Symptoms of Low Transmission Oil on the Speedometer

The fluid in the transmission lubricates and cools it. If there isn't enough transmission fluid, the transmission can overheat, causing some internal failures in the gear set or bearings. Transmission repair is often expensive, so the fluid level should be checked whenever the oil is changed to avoid extra expense and frustration. If the transmission oil is low, it will not have any adverse effects on the speedometer.

Speedometer

    If the transmission fluid is low, you may notice a decrease in speed. You may feel the car slowing down, or you may notice the speedometer drop in speed. Or the vehicle may just fail to move. If the vehicle is going up or down a steep incline, or drive quickly around a sharp corner, the vehicle might stop. This is because the transmission fluid moved away from the pickup tube and no fluid is going to the transmission.

    If the fluid gets too low, the car may not be drivable because of the damage to the transmission. Even though the speedometer cable is connected to the transmission, low transmission fluid has no effect on the speedometer since it does not travel up the speedometer cable. The speedometer cable needs no servicing. A professional mechanic might lubricate it, but this should not be attempted by a do-it-yourselfer because of the the fact that it is in a well-sealed location.

Smell

    If the transmission fluid is getting low, you may notice a burning smell, often called "pink stink." This is caused from the fluid getting too hot and causing excess friction in the transmission. A transmission that is overheated will not function properly.

Effects on the Transmission

    A transmission that is low on fluid will often slip during gear shifts, and the engine will race. It may also fail to engage and behave as if it is stuck in neutral. A vehicle that lurches forward, then falls back to normal, is often low on transmission fluid. Another symptom is slow or sluggish shifting between gears.

How to Troubleshoot a 2000 Chevrolet Impala

The Chevrolet automotive company was first formed in 1911 and it produced its first vehicle in 1912. Since then, the look and complexity of Chevrolet cars, including the 2000 Impala, has changed significantly. The 2000 Impala has many different parts and components, which can make it tough to know what needs to be replaced when something isn't functioning properly on your car. One way to troubleshoot problems with your Impala is to notice the type and general location of smells the car emits as you use it.

Instructions

    1

    Inspect the various belts inside your Impala's engine when you smell burning rubber from inside the engine compartment as you drive. One or more of these belts may be improperly routed or adjusted or may be worn or missing. Look also at the wire set of the engine to see if any wiring has come loose and is touching the hot engine components. If the burning smell is more prominent by the front wheels as you drive, check the upper and lower ball joints near your tires to determine if the caster camber has been properly installed. The improper installation of the camber will cause premature wear on the front tires.

    2

    Look at the Impala's serpentine belt system if you smell a strong exhaust odor while the car is idling. The system may have become loose, burned out or rusted. Check the exhaust manifold gasket if the exhaust smell is stronger while you drive to see if the odor is seeping out from a crack in the manifold.

    3

    Check the valve stern seals if you smell smoke when you start your car. Make sure these seals are not damaged or faulty. You should also inspect the head gasket and make sure that it isn't leaking coolant into the engine's cylinders.

    4

    When it smells like your engine is overheating while you drive, check the cooling fan switch. The switch might have a faulty electrical connection. Check the alternator if the Impala smells like burning metal when the engine is running. The alternator could have improper wiring, burnt insulating varnish or internal components of the alternator may have shorted out.

Senin, 29 Maret 2010

A 1996 Ford Van Won't Hold a Charge

A 1996 Ford Van Won't Hold a Charge

Troubleshooting a 1996 Ford van that won't hold a charge can be done at most auto parts stores with a charging system tester. This test is usually performed at no cost. However, with a few basic tools, and an understanding of a charging system, the same test can be performed at home. The 1996 Ford van alternator has a built-in voltage regulator, as opposed to other models, in which the regulator is separate from the alternator, and on the firewall.

Instructions

    1

    Put on the safety glasses to shield your eyes from debris. Use the " wrench to remove the cable ends from the battery. Loosen the nut on the post, and pull the ends off the battery posts by hand.

    2

    Use the terminal cleaner to clean the posts and cable ends, until they are clean. Reinstall the cable ends after cleaning.

    3

    If the battery is dead, place the charger on the battery connection leads, which run from the charger to the battery. Red is positive, and black is negative. Crossing these can cause the battery to explode. Let the charger run for at least eight hours, if it was completely dead.

    4

    Crank the engine. If the battery accepts the charge, continue to the next step. If the battery did not charge, it needs to be replaced, and the alternator should be checked.

    5

    Crank the engine, and disconnect the positive battery cable end. If the van continues to run, the alternator is good. If the van shuts off when you unhook the cable, the alternator needs to be replaced.

Trouble with a Chrysler Sebring

The Chrysler Sebring was manufactured in three separate phases from 1995-2010. On models made from 1996 on an OBD computer detects trouble with the car systems and will turn on the check engine light when necessary to let you know if the car has a problem. A simple computer diagnosis will give you a code that can be downloaded and matched to the troubleshooting codes in your owner's manual to find out what the specific problem is with your Sebring.

Instructions

    1

    Locate and remove the cover from the fuse box on your Sebring. Find the OBD computer port on your vehicle; this will be in the fuse box and have a multiple-pin port. Plug the diagnostic tool into the port and turn the key to the right but do not start the car.

    2

    Turn on the diagnostic tool, per the manufacturers directions, and wait for it to download the trouble code. The tool will usually say "OK" or something equivalent when the code has been properly downloaded.

    3

    Unplug the tool from the port and replace the fuse box cover. Scroll down on the menu on the diagnostic tool to where it says "retrieve code." Find the code or codes stored in the computer that are the source of the "check engine" light on the dashboard.

    4

    Match these downloaded codes to the troubleshooting codes in your vehicle's manual to determine what problems the computer has diagnosed. Repair or replace these parts as needed.

Ford Focus 2L Automatic Problems

The Ford Focus, a compact car available in a manual or automatic transmission with a 2-liter engine, was introduced in 1999. Despite its affordability, Auto Beef reports that 2000 to 2003 Focus models are "clunkers" due to their numerous mechanical problems, which include automatic transmission issues.

Shifting

    Ford technical service bulletins (TSBs) issued from November 1999 to March 2005 report that 2000 to 2003 Focus models suffer from shifting difficulties. Transaxle failure may result in "harsh" shifting and/or vibration while shifting. A faulty transaxle is often indicated by an illuminated "check engine" light and requires immediate replacement.

PCM

    Ford TSBs issued in November 2002 and December 2004 indicate that powertain control module (PCM) failure is prevalent among 2000 to 2003 Focus models. PCM failure may result in an improperly working transmission control module (TCM), which affects shifting and acceleration. Since the PCM is a computer it can be fixed by performing a software update at a dealership.

Leakage

    Ford TSBs issued in April 2000 state that a common transmission problem with the 2000 Focus is transmission leakage. TSBs report that the transmission may leak from the cooler line fittings. Fluid leaks result in improper lubrication, which contributes to shifting difficulty. In the case of a leak, the cooler line must be replaced.

Minggu, 28 Maret 2010

How to Tune Holley Carbs for Gas Mileage

Although Holley is most commonly associated with high-performance aftermarket automotive parts, American automakers have sometimes equipped their vehicles with Holley carburetors during the 1960s and 1970s. Holley carburetors are not specifically designed to provide optimum fuel mileage, but fuel mileage can be improved by adjusting the carburetor's fuel-mixture screw. If not properly adjusted, the carburetor will provide the engine with either too much or too little fuel, which has an adverse impact and gas mileage. Fortunately, making the adjustment takes only a few minutes and requires no disassembly.

Instructions

    1

    Attach a vacuum gauge to the vacuum port located at the bottom of the front of the carburetor. Pull the rubber plug off the port and press the vacuum gauge hose onto the port.

    2

    Turn the engine on and allow to idle until it reaches its normal temperature.

    3

    Locate the fuel-mixture screw on the side of the metering block. The metering block is bolted to the front of the carburetor. A single screw and a single metal port extend from the side of the block; the screw is the fuel-mixture screw. Note that some Holleys feature two metering blocks; the second metering block is bolted to the back of the carburetor. Each metering block features one fuel-mixture screw.

    4

    Turn the fuel-mixture screw in 1/8 increments in either direction with a standard screwdriver while monitoring the vacuum gauge as the engine idles. Turn the screw until the maximum vacuum reading is reached. If the carburetor features two metering blocks, turn the screw on both metering blocks in identical intervals until the maximum vacuum reading is reached.

    5

    Turn the engine off.

    6

    Disconnect the vacuum gauge from the vacuum port.

How to Troubleshoot the 4-Wheel Drive on a Ford F-350 4X4

How to Troubleshoot the 4-Wheel Drive on a Ford F-350 4X4

Ford has replaced its manually locking front-hub and four-wheel drive truck transfer case system with a push-button system that it calls "Touch Drive." The Touch Drive system is operated using an electric shift selector switch located on the instrument panel. Two buttons are used marked "4x4" and "Low Range." Indicator lights are to the lower right of the instrument cluster. Problems with the 4x4 can be related to the indicator lights, speeds when shifting, and unlocking the hubs. These kinds of problems can be corrected by following some troubleshooting steps.

Instructions

    1

    Look for two small amber lights next to the two buttons if you have difficulty identifying which mode of 4x4 the transfer case is in. They are in addition to the instrument cluster lights. No lights will be illuminated when the transfer case is in two-wheel drive. The light next to the "4x4" button will be lighted when any four-wheel drive mode is on. The light next to the "Low Range" button will illuminate when the four-wheel drive is in low range mode.

    2

    Press the buttons at the correct speed if the 4x4 won't come on. The "4x4" button can be pressed to change from two-wheel drive to four-wheel drive at speeds of up to 55 MPH. If it's very cold, you may have to slow down or even stop to make the shift. Press the button while the light is on to go back into two-wheel drive at any speed.

    3

    Reverse the F350 to free the front hubs if they won't free. Unlike a manual transfer case, the 4x4 selector switch automatically locks the hubs when engaging four-wheel drive. It does not, however, disengage them automatically. You need to reverse the truck for about 6-feet to free the hubs after pressing the "4x4" button again to engage two-wheel drive.

My Mercedes W208 CLK Has Transmission Problems

My Mercedes W208 CLK Has Transmission Problems

The Mercedes-Benz CLK series with a W208 comes in a variety of models and years. The manufacturer is publishing technical service bulletins concerning problems with the transmission some CLK owners are experiencing. Other automobile review and reports websites list a host of transmission problems found in the W208 CLK.

Transmission Leaking

    A TSB is published on the 2004 Mercedes-Benz CLK series with a W208 concerning a transmission leak. According to the manufacturer, the pilot bushing is the transmission is installed with the wrong sealing rings. These sealing rings are creating a small leak in the transmission causing the transmission to shift harshly because of low transmission fluid. The sealing rings need to be replaced to correct this problem.

Transmission Component Failure

    A report on the Mercedes-Benz CLK series with a W208 concerns internal transmission component failure. The gears and linkage in the automatic transmission is causing the transmission to shift roughly or jerk between gears during acceleration. This problem occurs between acceleration of first and second gear as well as deceleration of third to second and second to first gear. The Mercedes-Benz has updated internal parts that need to be installed to correct this problem.

Transmission Wire Connector

    The transmission wire connector on the Mercedes-Benz CLK series W208 is creating a leak in the transmission. The wire connected to the linkage is not installed properly, creating a rub on the seals of the linkage which creates a leak. The wire connector and seals need to be replaced to correct this transmission problem in the Mercedes-Benz.

Drive shaft Cracked

    The Mercedes-Benz CLK series W208 has reports of the drive shaft flex disc cracking causing the drive shaft to vibrate, damaging the internal components of the transmission. The crack causes a harsh vibration that flows to the transmission and drive shaft connection breaking the connection. This damage causes major internal transmission damage to the point that the transmission does not work. The transmission needs rebuilt or replaced and the flex disc requires replacing to correct the problem.

Sabtu, 27 Maret 2010

How Do I Troubleshoot an Overheating 1988 Honda Civic Hatchback?

How Do I Troubleshoot an Overheating 1988 Honda Civic Hatchback?

The cooling system in your 1988 Honda Civic is designed to give years of trouble-free operation. An overheating problem indicates that either a major component has failed or that the flow of coolant, or air, has become restricted. Overheating conditions should never be ignored as even occasional bouts of extreme operating temperatures will damage internal engine components. Occasionally, an overheating problem can be traced to other areas of the vehicle, such as the brakes or transmission.

Instructions

    1

    Raise the hood of your Civic. Check that the radiator cap and hoses are cool. If they are cool, remove the radiator cap. Look for a damaged seal on the radiator cap. A damaged seal will keep the system from reaching its proper operating pressure and will cause overheating. Check that there is coolant in both the radiator and in the coolant overflow reservoir, which is located on the inner fender. Look for any obvious leaks. Check for any obstructions to the airflow, such as leaves or other debris blocking the radiator fins.

    2

    Squeeze the lower radiator hose with by hand. If it collapses easily, this is a sign that it is closing during the intake of coolant and should be replaced. Look for any signs of discoloration around the hose clamps which indicate a leak. Check for any unusual bends or kinks in the radiator hoses. Inspect the radiator hose for any bulges or weak spots. This indicates either a blockage or an internal failure in the hose.

    3

    Inspect the fan belt, looking for any signs of slippage, such as glazing of the inner surface. This indicates that the belt is slipping and is not allowing the water pump to operate at its full capacity. If the belt shows glazing, either tighten or replace it. If the belt shows other damage, such as dry-rot or cracking, it should be replaced.

    4

    Examine the fan to determine if it is operating correctly. A clutch fan should give some resistance, when spun by hand, while an electric fan should turn on when the engine temperature rises. If the electric fan does not turn on when the engine temperature rises, check the electrical connections and the fuse to the fan. If the fan still will not operate when power is supplied to it, replace the fan.

    5

    Locate the water pump on the front of the engine and inspect it for any leaks. Some water pumps will seep coolant when they are failing mechanically.

    6

    Replace the radiator cap, start the engine and allow it to reach operating temperature. While keeping your hands away from the fan, feel the upper radiator hose. If the hose will not warm up, it indicates that coolant is not returning from the engine. This points to a stuck thermostat or a malfunctioning water pump.

    7

    Note any recent work done on the vehicle and if the overheating condition existed before the work was done. Brakes that have been adjusted too tightly and clutches that slip will also contribute to overheating. If any work has been done to the ignition system, check the timing of the distributor. Timing a distributor with too much advance will cause a vehicle to run hot. If the vehicle is an automatic, check the transmission fluid level as a slipping transmission will cause an engine to overheat.

How to Solve Fuel Flow Problems on a Ford

How to Solve Fuel Flow Problems on a Ford

The Ford fuel system resembles the design and type on most vehicles used today. On the more modern cars and trucks, the gas tank contains a pump that sends fuel through the lines, which contain filters, and then onto the throttle body or fuel rail. A fuel pressure regulator controls the amount of fuel sent back into the system. Any one of the components can contribute to a problem. Diagnosing a fuel flow problem requires a process of elimination, which means ruling out a good working part and finding the defective component.

Instructions

    1

    Set the vehicle shifter in park or neutral, according to your transmission type. Apply the emergency brake. Raise the hood. Use a floor jack to raise the vehicle rear end and place two jack stands under the chassis frame. Raise the front end of the vehicle and set two jack stands under the chassis frame.

    2

    Remove the gas tank cap and insert a flexible hose down the inlet neck as far as it will go, but do it gently. Pull the hose out and visually check for wetness on the hose, which will rule out a defective gas gauge on the dashboard. Be certain to tighten the gas cap properly -- a loose gas cap that works under pressure will affect the fuel flow delivery. Start the engine and slide under the gas tank.

    3

    Hold a stethoscope to the uppermost part of the tank and listen for a humming sound, which will be the electric fuel pump. No sound will usually indicate a defective circuit wire to the pump or a bad fuel pump motor. Go to your main fuse box panel; refer to your owner's manual for its location. Pull the fuse box lid and look at the schematic for the fuel pump relay and/or fuse.

    4

    Check the fuse for a blown filament. Replace any blown fuse. Exchange the fuel pump relay with another one of identical design that currently runs another component. With the engine running, listen with the stethoscope again. If you can hear a humming sound, the fuse or relay was defective. Shut off the engine.

    5

    Move to the engine compartment and locate the test port Schrader valve on the fuel rail. Check your owner's manual for its location. Place a rag over the Schrader valve. Unscrew the Schrader valve cap and use a screwdriver tip to release the fuel pump pressure. Replace the cap. Loosen the fuel intake line with a fuel wrench. Hook up a fuel pressure gauge to a T-fitting, connecting the top of the T-fitting lines to the tank side line and the injector side line.

    6

    Turn the ignition key to the "On" position. Read the gauge. For a fuel port injection system, the psi (pounds per square inch) should read 45 to 55 psi. For a throttle body fuel system, it should read 14 to 18 psi. Anything reading less will indicate a problem with the fuel pump, intake line or in-line fuel filter underneath the chassis. Turn off the ignition key.

    7

    Start the engine, with the fuel pressure gauge still attached. The psi readings should not change from your specifications. Work the throttle lever or pull the throttle cable to rev the engine once. Look at the gauge. The psi should jump up about 5 lbs. above your normal fuel specification pressure. If the pressure did not jump up when you revved the engine, the fuel pressure regulator has failed and needs replacement.

    8

    Slide under the vehicle and check the fuel line running from the front of the engine to the gas tank. Look for kinks, cuts or damage in the flexible hose or solid line. Locate the in-line fuel filter under the chassis by referring to your owner's manual. Place a drain pan under the filter. Use a screwdriver to loosen the hose clamps on the filter.

    9

    Pull out the filter and blow through both nozzle ends. A clogged filter will not allow air to pass from one or both sides. Replace the filter with a new one, if clogged. Use a screwdriver to reattach the old filter to the fuel hoses if it checks out.

Jumat, 26 Maret 2010

How to Make a Ford Auto Dimming Mirror Darker

How to Make a Ford Auto Dimming Mirror Darker

Some Ford vehicles are supplied with an interior rear-view mirror that dims automatically. The mirror includes electronic circuitry that changes the reflective state from a normal, highly reflective, mirror surface to a dimmed, darkened surface that reduces glare. Sensors are located at the front and back of the mirror.

Instructions

    1

    Pivot the rear-view mirror's support arm from side to side and up or down so that you have a good view of the rear window and the traffic behind you. Drive at night and observe vehicles behind you. As the vehicles approach the Ford, the rear-view mirror will darken as it detects the light from the vehicle's headlights. Glare will be minimized.

    2

    Check for obstructions on the sensors if the mirror doesn't become darker. Look for decals or hanging objects such as air fresheners or artifacts, and remove them. Change the fuse if the mirror still won't get darker. The fuse is in Position 5 in the interior fuse panel, which is located below the dash on Fords. It uses a 5-amp fuse.

    3

    Replace the mirror if it continues to fail to dim when vehicles are behind you. It's possible that harsh cleaning materials, petroleum-based cleaners, abrasives, fuel or other contaminants have permanently damaged the mirror. Avoid using such products.

How to Check the Head Gasket on a 1988 Toyota Camry

The Toyota Camry made its debut late in the 1983 model year. The 1988 model was available as either a sedan or station wagon, and engine choices were a 2.0 liter four-cylinder or 2.5 liter six-cylinder configuration. Experienced home mechanics will find checking the condition of the head gasket a pretty simple task, regardless of the engine type. Given the age of the '88 Camrys that are still on the road, owners would do well to check their head gaskets for potential problems.

Instructions

    1

    Look for head gasket leaks. Park your Camry and open the hood. Locate the joint between the cylinder head and engine block. Look all around the joint, checking carefully for engine oil or coolant leaks. Leaks in this area indicate a failure of the head gasket or improperly torqued head bolts.

    2

    Check for smoke in the engine exhaust. The exhaust from a well-tuned engine will be invisible, except for a small amount of water vapor while the engine is warming up. Start the engine and look at the exhaust gasses coming out of the tail pipe. If you see blue smoke it means engine oil is leaking into one or more of the engine cylinders, which in turn might be the result of a head gasket failure. If you see white smoke, it means cooling fluid is leaking into one or more of the cylinders, which is almost certainly the result of a head gasket failure.

    3

    Check for light colored foam in the engine oil. Park your Camry and turn off the engine. Open the hoo. Pull out the engine oil dipstick. Look carefully at the oil on the end of the stick to see if there is a light brown foam present. If so, this indicates the coolant is leaking through the head gasket into the oil flow passages of the engine.

    4

    Check for oil in the cooling fluid. Park your Camry and let the engine cool for at least 30 minutes. Open the hood and remove the radiator cap. Look down through the opening at the cooling fluid. It should be greenish in color. If it appears brownish, or if you see oily looking scum or foam on the surface, it means that oil is leaking through the head gasket into the cooling fluid flow passages of the engine.

    5

    Check for exhaust gasses in the cooling fluid. Park your Camry and let the engine cool for at least 30 minutes. Open the hood and remove the radiator cap. Start the engine and allow it to warm up until the thermostat opens and you can see the cooling fluid circulating through the radiator. Look carefully for bubbles of engine exhaust gasses in the cooling fluid. If present, these bubbles indicate that exhaust gasses are leaking out of one or more of the cylinders through the head gasket and into the cooling fluid flow passages.

Kamis, 25 Maret 2010

How do I Test the O2 Sensor in a 1987 22RE?

The oxygen sensor in 1987 Toyota's 22RE engine monitors the oxygen content in the exhaust. It sends a signal to the computer via a voltage output. The voltage output changes depending on whether the exhaust mixture is lean or rich -- the leaner the mixture, the lower the voltage. The computer uses the signal from the oxygen sensor, along with other sensor signals, to adjust the air-to-fuel mixture in the engine. The wiring connector is a one-pin connector.

Instructions

    1

    Start the vehicle and allow it to warm up to operating temperature. The oxygen sensor must be in closed loop to perform the test. Connect the graphing meter's red lead to the harness side of the oxygen sensor connector. Connect the black lead to a known good ground.

    2

    Raise the idle to 2,500 rpm. The minimum voltage should be below 250 mV, and maximum voltage should be more than 800 mV. The minimum voltage should not be a negative number. The oxygen sensor should cycle from high to low eight to 16 times in about 10 seconds, giving you a minimum and maximum reading.

    3

    Snap the throttle several times while watching the graphing meter. When you snap the throttle, the voltage should rise quickly, to more than 850 mV, then come back down.

    4

    Hold the rpm at 2,500. Quickly release the throttle while watching the graphing meter. Voltage should drop quickly to about 100 mV.

Rabu, 24 Maret 2010

Troubleshooting a 1987 Dodge Ram 50 Carburetor

Troubleshooting a 1987 Dodge Ram 50 Carburetor

The 1987 Dodge Ram 50 uses either a four- or two-barrel carburetor. The carburetor mixes air and fuel in appropriate levels prior to injecting the mixture into the engine. Whether your vehicle uses the stock carburetor or an aftermarket one, the problems that arise are the same. Troubleshooting these issues requires some basic monitoring of your vehicle's performance, identifying what issues exist and what they mean. A common misdiagnosis of a carburetor problem is actually dirty fuel. Problems that continue beyond refilling the fuel tank need further diagnosis.

Instructions

    1

    Start your vehicle. If the engine will not start or turn over, you have a blocked fuel line. Check the fuel line delivery system. If the engine starts but dies immediately or after a few seconds, the choke may not be closing or is set improperly. Other signs that the choke may be set wrong include the vehicle dying at low idle or revving high and then dying. If, after starting, it revs up high and stays high in park or neutral, the idle is set too high.

    2

    Run the vehicle for 15 to 20 minutes. After running it for a few minutes, if the RPM remains high and there is a lot of black smoke or the engine dies, the pull-off diaphragm or power valve may be damaged. You could also have a serious vacuum leak in the lines or carburetor.

    3

    Turn the vehicle off and restart it. If you are unable to restart the vehicle after it has warmed up, the choke may be staying closed when the engine is hot. If it dies after a few seconds, the power valve or venting system is inoperative.

    4

    Drive the vehicle after the engine has warmed up. Hesitations or stumbling with light throttle indicates a vacuum leak, bad accelerator pump, damaged idle solenoid, a stuck heated air inlet or a stuck EGR valve. Black smoke or choppy running indicates a blown power valve. Hesitation or dying under heavy throttle points to a bad accelerator pump, stuck metering rods or a power valve, or the secondary air valve is set wrong. If the truck is idling fine but dies when stopping, you have a bad throttle positioner or defective float.

    5

    Turn the vehicle off and allow it to cool. Once the engine has cooled down, start and immediately drive the vehicle. Engine stall, when engaging the transmission, indicates the choke pull-off or fast idle is set too low, or there is a potential vacuum leak. Stumbling or hesitation, while driving, points to a vacuum leak or improperly set choke. It could also mean the vacuum tubes are hooked up incorrectly. Hesitation or stalling, after the vehicle has been driven for a short time, indicates a defective electric assist, accelerator pump or ignition condenser. Backfiring from a cold engine implies a plugged heat crossover system or a defective heat shroud duct or manifold vacuum supply.

How to Measure Car Cylinder Compression

As the piston is moved up in the cylinder by the crankshaft during an engine's compression stroke, the air/fuel mixture is compressed. This heats the mixture to a temperature near its self-combustion temperature. The compression and heating of the air/fuel mixture allows for a more complete combustion when the spark plug ignites the mixture. If not enough compression is developed to heat the mixture sufficiently, a misfire will occur and the spark plug may become fouled with unburned fuel.

Instructions

Dry Compression Test

    1

    Unplug the spark plug wires by twisting each plug wire boot as you pull the wire away from its respective plug. Clean any accumulated dirt and debris from the spark plugs, using compressed air or spraying parts cleaner. Remove all of the spark plugs, using a spark plug socket and ratchet.

    2

    Disable the fuel and ignition system by removing the fuel pump fuse or relay and disconnecting the ignition coil. Block the throttle open, so that maximum air can flow through the engine during the test.

    3

    Screw the compression tester hose and fitting into the Number 1 cylinder spark plug hole. Avoid over-tightening the fitting in the head; it only needs to be snug enough to seal the opening.

    4

    Turn the ignition key to the "Start" position and crank the engine 4 to 6 revolutions while observing the gauge. As the piston in the cylinder being tested comes to top dead center of the stroke, it will cause an uneven sound in the cranking speed to indicate a revolution. Compression should build quickly. Write down the compression value.

    5

    Repeat the test for all of the cylinders. Any cylinder whose compression is 15% lower than that of the highest cylinder is considered to be low. Two low cylinders that are next to each other may indicate a faulty head gasket. A cylinder that has a low reading on the first compression and builds up slowly indicates bad rings. One that never builds up indicates a valve-train problem.

The Signs of a Transmission Needing to Be Replaced

The Signs of a Transmission Needing to Be Replaced

If your car is having trouble shifting, you and your mechanic must decide whether or not it is a problem that can be solved with service or if the transmission needs to be replaced completely. Due to the complexity of modern transmissions, replacing is more common than rebuilding in the case of serious damage. In either case, transmission problems should never be ignored.

Delayed Shifting

    If you shift from park into drive but the vehicle does not engage for several moments and then finally shifts into gear, there is likely a transmission problem. If your transmission fluid is low, you may have a leak in the pressurized system that has caused the delay. If your fluid is full and not leaking, then there is a more serious problem with the transmission.

Noises

    When your car shifts gears, pay attention to any unusual noises that occur. If you hear any deep grinding, clunking or squealing as your car shifts, especially if it appears to struggle as it does so, then you have a transmission problem. Try to hear where the noise is coming from. If it is coming from under your feet, then the transmission itself is likely the problem, and a replacement might be required.

Won't Go Into Gear

    If a car won't go into a given gear, the transmission might need to be completely replaced. Again, this problem could be caused by a leak that de-pressurizes the system. Barring that problem, however, if a vehicle will not enter a given gear at all, then there is serious damage somewhere within the system. Due to the complexity of an automatic transmission, most mechanics will prefer to replace the transmission entirely.

Feel

    Paying attention to how the shifting feels is as important as listening for noises and watching your gauges. If shifts are no longer smooth, especially if you notice them getting rougher over time, then the gears or synchronizers inside your transmission could be wearing out. If you can feel the gears grinding when shifting manually or if you feel the vehicle shake or stutter when an automatic transmission shifts, you have reason to suspect this problem.

What Are the Signs of a Faulty EGR Valve on a Vectra?

What Are the Signs of a Faulty EGR Valve on a Vectra?

The exhaust gas recirculating valve (EGR) in an Opel Vectra uses a simple technique for reducing nitrogen emissions first used by General Motors in 1972. The car begins to emit nitrogen when its combustion chamber reaches a high temperature; educing the temperature in the combustion chamber prevents these emissions. An open EGR valve allows carbon dioxide and water from the exhaust to recycle into the intake manifold, cooling the combustion chamber and thereby reducing nitrogen production. An EGR valve that fails to open and close properly can cause problems in your Vectra.

Will Not Idle

    An EGR valve that stays open can cause your Vectra to die when you attempt to idle. The open valve acts like a major vacuum leak, preventing your engine from receiving enough gas to stay running.

Idles Roughly

    When the EGR valve is not opening at precisely the right times, your car will have a rough idle. In this situation, your Vectra works hard at idling due to intermittent shortages of gas.

Knocking

    Loud knocking sounds can also indicate a faulty EGR valve. When the valve remains closed, the combustion chamber heats up too much and can create a knocking noise.

Selasa, 23 Maret 2010

Problems With Power Door Locks on a 1991 Honda Accord SE

Problems With Power Door Locks on a 1991 Honda Accord SE

The 1991 Honda Accord SE has reports and technical service bulletins (TSB) on it regarding power door lock problems. The power door locks on the Accord are engaged with a button on the door console as well as the key from the outside the Honda. The complaints and repair reports are concerning locking problems such as power door locks not engaging or activating intermittently.

Doors Hard to Open

    According to the TSB published by the manufacturer, the 1991 Honda Accord SE is having problems with the doors and window becoming hard to open. This door problem is attributed to the power door lock mechanism breaking or dislodging, causing the doors to not unlock completely as well as preventing the windows from raising and lowering completely. The door panel needs to be removed to gain access to the interior power door lock mechanism to repair the power door lock components. This power door lock problem generally affects one door and window, but the other doors in the Accord have the same components.

Power Door Lock Actuator

    A minimum of nine power door lock problem complaints have been reported on the 1991 Honda Accord SE. The power door locks are working intermittently, causing the door locks to not engage or disengage when the buttons are pressed. This power door lock problem is attributed to the actuator on the driver's side door. Once the power door locks are engaged by the control button on the driver's side, it does not disengage, which causes the power door locks to jam. Once this jamming of the contacts of the door lock button occurs, the actuator quits working and the power door locks do not work. The actuator needs to be replaced.

Contacts Separate

    The contacts that control the power door locks on the 1991 Honda Accord SE can separate. This separation of the contacts prevents a connection that allows the power door locks to engage or disengage. No reason is given for this power door lock problem, but the TSB from the manufacturer states the contacts are improperly installed in the door console. This installation problem creates a larger gap between contact points, preventing the contact connection to close together when the power door lock button is pressed. The Accord should be taken to a dealership to have the control buttons inspected and repaired.

Senin, 22 Maret 2010

What is Code PO171 for a Mazda MPV LX 3.0 Liter?

What is Code PO171 for a Mazda MPV LX 3.0 Liter?

The Mazda MPV, a minivan available in four-wheel drive, debuted in 1989. Edmunds.com contends that the MPV was the first "rough-weather friendly" and "go anywhere" minivan on the market. The MPV is equipped with rhe On-board Diagnostic (OBD-II) system that produces "trouble codes" identifying problems with the van.

Diagnostic Trouble Codes

    Signaled by the illumination of the check engine light, trouble codes are detected faults in your vehicle's computer. In order to access trouble codes, the consumer or a mechanic can connect a car code reader to the diagnostic link connector (DLC) located inside the vehicle to the left or right of the steering column.

Code P0171

    Mazda diagnostic code P0171 signifies the fuel is too lean, that the oxygen sensor in bank 1 has detected too much oxygen in the exhaust. Symptoms may include lack of power and hesitation during acceleration.

Solution

    The primary solution to the problem is to clean the MAF, or mass air flow sensor. The unit should be cleaned with an electronics or brake cleaner. If not the MAF, another problem may be the vacuum or PVC hoses, which would require replacement.

What Could Cause a Parasitic Drain on My 1990 Corvette Battery?

What Could Cause a Parasitic Drain on My 1990 Corvette Battery?

The 1990 Chevrolet Corvette is equipped with a battery to store the electricity necessary to start and operate the car. If a parasitic drain exists, the battery will not contain the necessary amperage to start the car.

Original Equipement Shorts

    Any factory device that uses electricity to operate could potentially be the source of the drain. Common drains include interior lights that fail to shut off when the doors or compartments are closed. Wiring in the electrical harness may also short to ground if the insulation is removed or broken.

Aftermarket Equipment

    Many different kinds of aftermarket equipment may be installed in a Corvette. Radar detectors that fail to shut off with the ignition key are a known draw on the battery. Stereo equipment, amplifiers, equalizers and active crossovers for speakers may also be a drain on the battery if not wired into a circuit controlled by the ignition switch.

Internal Battery Issues

    The original battery and many replacement batteries are constructed from lead and acid. The lead plates may erode or crack with time and wear. An internal short may result from cracked or broken plates, resulting in a drain on the battery.

Starting Problems on the Nissan Extra

Starting Problems on the Nissan Extra

The Nissan XTerra is a mid-sized SUV (Sport Utility Vehicle). The vehicle was first launched in 2000 and continues to be built and sold. It has gone through one major redesign since it was first launched and has had minor design changes along the way. From time to time, the Nissan XTerra -- like all vehicles -- might have difficulty starting. When this happens, there are a few simple things you can do to try and get your XTerra running.

Instructions

    1

    Insert the key into the ignition of your Nissan XTerra and turn the key forward to the first position. This will normally turn on the electrical systems to your vehicle. If the electrical systems are not working, turn the key back and remove it from the ignition.

    2

    Open the hood. Inspect the battery and battery cable connections. If there is a build-up of corrosion on the battery and cables, disconnect the cables and clean the battery posts and cable with a wire brush. If the corrosion is excessive, mix a cup of water with one tablespoon of baking soda and use the mixture to clean the posts. Replace the battery cables and try to start the vehicle again.

    3

    Disconnect the spark plug wires and remove the spark plugs from the XTerra's engine using a spark plug wrench. Inspect the bottom of the spark plugs and observe if there is a build-up of black carbon. Clean the bottom of the spark plug using a wire brush. If the carbon build up is excessive, replace the old spark plugs with new ones. Install the spark plugs and tighten them with a spark plug wrench. Reconnect the spark plug wires and try to start the XTerra.

    4

    Open the hood and locate the fuel filter. Remove and replace the filter if it looks plugged. In order for the engine to start, it requires the proper mix of fuel, air and a spark from the spark plug. If those conditions do not exist, the engine will not start. Once the fuel filter has been replaced, insert the key into the ignition and turn it to start the SUV.

Minggu, 21 Maret 2010

How do I Troubleshoot a 1979 Malibu?

The 1979 Chevrolet Malibu is a four-door sedan. The base model was equipped with a 3.3-liter six-cylinder engine. The car included several standard features, including a catalytic converter, full coil suspension system, front stabilizer bar, cushioned body-mounting system, full carpeting and a larger trunk space from previous models. One method to troubleshoot problems with the Malibu is to notice the type and location of smells the car is emitting and when they are being emitted.

Instructions

    1

    Locate the valve cover gasket when your Malibu's engine smells like it is burning oil as you drive. The gasket could be leaking oil that is burning on the hot engine. If the valve cover gasket is in good condition, inspect the oil filler cap to see if it is damaged or missing (also check the PCV valve to determine if it has become plugged or damaged). Look at the oil pan gasket and head gasket to check if either of these parts are leaking. If the burning oil smell comes from underneath the car instead of the engine, locate and check the transmission rear seal to see if it is leaking fluid and blowing that fluid onto the hot exhaust.

    2

    Check the oxygen sensor to see if it is faulty when your vehicle emits a rotten egg or sulfur smell from your exhaust. The catalytic converter may also be clogged or otherwise faulty. You should also inspect the PCV valve and its attending hoses to make sure they aren't plugged up or damaged. Also check the carburetor to see if it is functioning properly.

    3

    Inspect the belts inside your Malibu's engine when you can smell burning rubber coming from the engine compartment as you drive. One or more of these belts may be incorrectly routed, adjusted, worn or completely missing. Look also at the wireset of the engine to see if any of the wires have become loose and are touching any of the hot engine components while you are driving the Malibu. If the burning rubber smell is coming from the front tires instead of the engine, check the upper and lower ball joints to see whether the caster camber and toe-in are properly installed. Improperly installing these joints will cause premature wear on your front two tires.

    4

    Find and inspect the heater core of your Malibu when there is a mold or mildew smell inside your passenger compartment. The heater core may be leaking antifreeze or coolant into the flooring of your car. If the smell is coming more from the trunk of the vehicle, make sure that the weather stripping around the trunk is still in place and working properly. Missing weather stripping may allow moisture to enter into the trunk and cause the moldy smell.

What Are the Causes of Overheating in a 2000 Ford Contour?

Overheating can cause serious problems for your 2000 Ford Contour's engine. When the engine overheats, components can expand and crush the head gasket, or the excess heat can warp or destroy important components. Stop driving an overheating vehicle immediately to avoid causing permanent damage to the engine.

Low Coolant

    One of the most common causes of overheating in vehicles, including the 2000 Contour, is a lack of coolant -- the fluid that circulates through the vehicle's cooling system, which should consist of a 50-50 mixture of antifreeze and water. If your engine does not have enough coolant circulating through it, it will become excessively hot. Coolant can evaporate or burn off over time, as well as escape through leaks; check your coolant from time to time by removing the radiator cap and looking for fluid. If you cannot see any fluid, add coolant until it builds up to the point where you can see it.

Clogs

    Radiators rust and break down over time, causing debris to form within the Contour's cooling system. This debris can clog the radiator and hoses, restricting the flow of coolant. When coolant flow becomes restricted, it will not circulate properly and the Contour will overheat.

Mechanical Failure

    Several cooling system components can fail and cause your vehicle to overheat. These include the water pump, thermostat, radiator, hoses and even the head gasket. If the water pump stops pumping, coolant will not circulate without the pump, so the vehicle will overheat. The thermostat can stick closed and restrict coolant flow. Radiator clogs will also restrict flow, and cracks, holes or other leaks will cause coolant to leak out. If the head gasket blows out, coolant can leak into your oil.

Sabtu, 20 Maret 2010

My Radiator Fan Won't Kick On

My Radiator Fan Won't Kick On

The radiator fan provides cooling to the radiator and is vital to keeping your engine from overheating. When this fan will not kick on, there is a danger of power loss and even engine damage if the engine is run for too long. The lack of cooling can cause manifolds to crack, spark plugs to fuse solid, and wires to separate. The radiator can be prevented from starting by corroded wires, debris damage and rust.

Instructions

    1

    Pop open your hood. Raise the hood up by hand and support it with the hood prop stick that should be laying to the side or front of the engine bay.

    2

    Examine the power wire that runs from the radiator to the alternator on the car. The radiator fan will be located right before the radiator itself and right behind the car's grill. The power wire connecting the fan to the car's electrical system will run up and to the side of the motor, along the engine bay side wall. It will either be attached with metal attachment straps to the structure of the car or by zip ties. You are looking for any obvious breaks in the power wire, as would be evidenced by the exposure of raw metal wire.

    3

    Examine the attachment straps for corrosion or chafing of the wire. If the attachment strap has rust or other corrosion then the wire underneath could be corroded away, letting the metal power wire ground itself out on the car's frame. Also, examine the zip ties if your car uses those; there is no danger of corrosion but there is still the possibility of chafing causing the wire to get exposed.

    4

    Examine the fan itself for rust or damage; most modern fans are made from plastic except for high-performance cars. If the fan is damaged, it will have blades missing or it may be no longer perpendicular to the fan housing. If the fan is misaligned, then the blades may be getting caught on the fan support struts; thus stopping the radiator from turning. If the fan is metal, then you need to rotate the fan by hand to see if rust has fused the fan to the fan housing. If the fan is damaged, it will need to be replaced.

Kamis, 18 Maret 2010

How to Troubleshoot a Chevy Tracker

How to Troubleshoot a Chevy Tracker

The Chevy Tracker is a small SUV that was first manufactured in 1999. The Tracker features a V-6 engine that is similar to the engine used in the S-10 pickup. The vehicle is manufactured in two- and four-door versions. It requires some basic mechanical knowledge to troubleshoot the small engine. You'll also need a diagnostic reader to test the engine sensors. Major repairs must be completed by an experienced mechanic.

Instructions

    1

    Use a voltage meter to test the battery and alternator for a charge. If the meter reads less than 12 volts, replace the battery. If the power system continues to fail, replace the alternator. Also clean the battery posts with a wire brush to create a clean connection.

    2

    Remove the starter and it tested at an auto store. A bad starter will prevent the engine from turning and will make a clicking sound as it fails rotate. Replace the starter if necessary.

    3

    Plug a diagnostic code reader into the ODB II port located beneath the center of the dash. Turn on the reader and start the Tracker. If the reader returns any troubleshooting codes, the problems should be corrected immediately.

    4

    Check the coolant level and replenish low fluids. Also inspect the manifold gasket for leaks. Major leaks in the gasket must be sealed or replaced immediately. Tracker owners have reported a number of cooling system problems, so you must monitor the temperature gauge while driving.

    5

    Drive the car and monitor the engine as you accelerate. If the engine does not respond with power when you hit the gas, the fuel pump is weak and must be replaced. The pump will eventually die and the Tracker will not operate until it is replaced.

How to Troubleshoot a BMW 2000 540I That Won't Start

How to Troubleshoot a BMW 2000 540I That Won't Start

Older European import cars often have electrical faults that prevent their starting. The battery is the most common cause. However, if it uses Bosch electronics it may need to be replaced entirely which would require a skilled mechanic. The 540i also uses the BMW V8 that has a number of mechanical issues that crop up after 60,000 miles that also would require a skilled mechanic. However, there are still a number of basic steps that can clear up common problems preventing the car from starting.

Instructions

How to Diagnose a Non-Starting BMW 540

    1

    Turn the key. Look for the dashboard lights to either come on or flicker and for the engine to chug, which indicates that it is turning over but not igniting.

    2

    Turn the BMW off and hit the hood release button. Prop the hood up with the hood prop stick on the side of the engine bay. Look at the battery in the upper left of the engine bay and check for foam on the top or side. This foam indicates that the battery is leaking acid and should be replaced. Battery acid can burn your skin, so use extreme caution or hire a mechanic to do the work. If there is no foam, then a stout thump of your shoe on the electrical posts may reconnect the electrical clamps if they have become undone.

    3

    Turn the 540 on again, looking for the dashboard light to react and for the engine to chug or come on. If there is chugging but still not combustion then the battery may be dead. Remove the battery by undoing the "O" ring clamps on the posts with a flathead and then undoing the retaining hardware by hand Slide the battery out and then slide a new battery in. Reattach the electrical clamps and the retaining hardware, being careful not to over tighten.

    4

    Turn the 540 on again and check for the lights and the chugging. If the lights did come on but the engine still will not start running then the engine is flooded.To clear a flooded engine you will need to dry off the fuel-covered spark plugs with the Clear Flood mode. Push the accelerator all the way down and repeatedly turn the ignition on. Do this for three or four minutes and then release the accelerator and take the keys out.

    5

    Try to turn the 540 on again and if the car still will not start then a mechanic is needed to fix the car as the Bosch electronics may have gone bad or the V-8 may have a mechanical issue.

Rabu, 17 Maret 2010

How to Troubleshoot a 1999 Chevrolet Cavalier Service Engine Soon Light

How to Troubleshoot a 1999 Chevrolet Cavalier Service Engine Soon Light

A 1999 Chevrolet Cavalier's service engine soon light is directly connected to the vehicle's second generation On-Board Diagnostic system. Once the diagnostic computer senses an engine malfunction, it will assign the problem a code and classify it as "pending." If the malfunction consistently repeats, the OBD-II system will change the problems status to "Trouble" and that's when the service engine soon light comes on.

Instructions

    1

    Open the Cavalier's driver-side door, and climb behind the wheel. Connect your OBD-II code reader to the data link connector diagnostic port directly beneath the steering wheel. Place, in the passenger's seat, the manual that came packaged with your OBD-II code reader.

    2

    Switch the OBD-II code reader on, and start the Cavalier's electrical system. Code readers operate differently by brand and model, so consult your handbook for the exact instructions on how to use your reader. For example, some code readers are preset for self-activation once it detects a live data stream from vehicle's OBD-II system. Other code readers may also need not just the electrical system operating, but the engine running as well.

    3

    Look at your code reader's display screen. If your reader is preset for auto-retrieval, the trouble codes should be waiting for you. Some scanners will require you to punch in a "scan command." Since button layout is different by brand, you will need to consult your manual on how to do this.

    4

    Scroll through the codes retrieved. Differentiate between pending and trouble codes. If you solely want to troubleshoot why the light is active, you can ignore the pending codes for the time being. Write the codes down.

    5

    Look up the OBD-II coding explanations in your reader's manual. Most readers will only display the alpha-numeric code itself, not what the codes actually mean. A Chevy also use a supplemental form of OBD-II codes used in all General Motors vehicles. Your Cavalier's owner's manual will not have these supplemental codes. The least expensive, free option is to find those codes online (see Resource). Copy out the coding explanations.

How to Manually Error Test My 1990 Ford Truck

How to Manually Error Test My 1990 Ford Truck

A 1990 Ford truck predates standardized On-Board Diagnostics by six years. The truck employs Ford's Electronic Engine Control (fourth version) for engine related error codes. To access the system, no scanning device is required. The Ford Truck can be put into self-testing mode, and the EEC-IV system will flash the error codes through the check engine light. Only Fords using the EEC-IV system are able to do this. Ford trucks manufactured after 1996 require OBD-II compliant hardware.

Instructions

    1

    Start the truck's engine and let it idle until it reaches its usual operation temperature. If you do not wish to leave the car stationary and running, you can drive the car until it fully warms up. The truck needs to be completely warm, so leave the air conditioner off.

    2

    Turn the truck's engine off and release the hood. Prop the hood open over the Ford's engine.

    3

    Locate the truck's Self-Test Out hub. Next to it, you will find the Self-Test Input receptor. The STO has a six-sided shape and features six slots. The STI is single-slotted, and it is at the end of twisted wire.

    4

    Insert one end of a jumper wire into the STI. Insert the other end into the STO's grounding slot. To find it, look at the row containing four slots. It will be the second from the left end.

    5

    Insert the key into the truck's ignition. Turn to "On" so the electrical system becomes active. However, you must leave the engine off.

    6

    Count how many times the Ford's check engine light flashes. EEC-IV codes consists of two numbers. The first will be seen as long flashes. The second number will be seen through shorter flashes. For example, EEC-IV code 12 would be seen as one long flash followed by two shorter ones. A brief pause will separate full code numbers. The codes will also be two numbers. There are no single digit EEC-IV codes.

    7

    Write each code number down. You will need to look up each code's definition. The Ford truck's manual will not offer these definitions, and you will either have to find the definitions online or obtain a Haynes or Chilton manual for your model of 1990 Ford truck. While the internet may provide the no-cost option, the Haynes or Chilton manual will be worth the investment. The book will not only explain the meaning of EEC-IV codes, it will offer detailed repair instructions for everything from the chassis electrical system to the engine and the transmission.

How to Replace the Heat Blower on a Nissan Maxima

The heat blower, commonly referred to as the blower motor, is a fan located behind the instrument panel in most vehicles that blows through the air ventilation ducts throughout the vehicle. Without a properly-operating blower motor, air won't blow through the ventilation ducts, often leaving the interior air stagnant. Luckily, the blower motor can be easily accessed and replaced by most novice mechanics.

Instructions

    1

    Detach the negative battery cable from the battery terminal with a socket wrench.

    2

    Open the glove box. Remove the retaining screws around the perimeter of the glove box with a Phillips screwdriver. Pull the glove box from the instrument panel and unplug the electrical connections from the rear of the glove box.

    3

    Pull the blower motor cover from the blower motor, located near the passenger side body behind the glove box.

    4

    Unplug the electrical connector from the blower motor.

    5

    Unscrew the three blower motor retaining screws with a Phillips screwdriver. Guide the blower motor from the housing.

    6

    Slide the replacement blower motor into the housing and install the three retaining screws with a Phillips screwdriver.

    7

    Plug the electrical connector into the blower motor.

    8

    Push the blower motor cover back over the motor housing.

    9

    Slide the glove box into the instrument panel. Install the glove box retaining screws with a Phillips screwdriver.

    10

    Re-attach the negative battery cable to the battery terminal with a socket wrench.-

Selasa, 16 Maret 2010

How to Change the Alternator on a Ranger

How to Change the Alternator on a Ranger

The Ford Ranger was introduced in 1965 as an F-series truck with bucket seats and an upgraded trim package. In 1992 the Ranger was changed to a smaller truck, based on the Mazda Courier frame. Starting with the 1982 model year, the Ford Ranger has been sold with a 4-cylinder or V-6 engine, and it comes in two- or four-wheel drive. Replacing the alternator on a Ranger from 1982 to present is a nearly identical process, with the only difference being the placement of the alternator on the engine.

Instructions

    1

    Open the hood of the Ranger. Locate and depress the tensioner assembly on the front of the engine, using a 3/8-inch ratchet and socket. Depressing the tensioner assembly will release the tension on the drive belt. Remove the drive belt from the front of the engine.

    2

    Remove the positive cable from the battery, using a 3/8-inch drive ratchet and socket. There is a constant positive charge between the alternator and the battery. Removing the battery cable will eliminate the chance of electrical shock or electrical damage to any part of your vehicle during the alternator replacement process.

    3

    Remove the upper bolt of the alternator, which sits on what is known as a swing arm. Use a 3/8-inch drive ratchet and socket to remove the bolt. Use a pair of pliers on the other end of the bolt if your upper bolt has a nut on the other end. Swing the alternator outward, away from the engine, until you can access the back casing on the alternator.

    4

    Remove both the positive and negative lead wires from the alternator, using a 3/8-inch drive ratchet and socket.

    5

    Remove the lower bolt from the alternator, which mounts directly into the alternator bracket. Slide the entire alternator assembly out of the alternator bracket.

    6

    Install the new alternator into the alternator bracket. Slide the lower bolt through the assembly, into the alternator bracket. Start the bottom bolt into the bracket by hand, but do not tighten the bottom bolt.

    7

    Attach the positive and negative lead wires to the rear of the alternator housing, using a 3/8-inch drive ratchet and socket. Tighten the fastener nuts onto the wiring connectors between 15 to 25 ft.-lbs. of torque. Do not over tighten the nuts, or you will spin the threaded post and destroy your new alternator.

    8

    Slide the alternator into position to align the upper bolt. Slide the upper bolt through the swing arm, or adjuster, arm. Fasten the nut on the opposite end of the bolt if present, using a 3/8-inch drive ratchet and socket, plus pliers if needed. Fasten both upper and lower bolts on the alternator between 50 to 60 ft.-lbs. of torque.

    9

    Drape the drive belt back onto the alternator. Confirm the belt routing by checking the belt routing diagram on top of the radiator of your Ranger. Depress the tensioner pulley and reinstall the drive belt back onto the pulleys, as directed by the belt routing diagram. Release the tensioner when the belt is aligned and centered on all pulleys.

    10

    Reinstall the positive battery cable and tighten between 15 to 20 ft.-lbs. of torque, using a 3/8-inch drive ratchet and socket.

What Are the Causes of Front Wheel Drive Problems?

What Are the Causes of Front Wheel Drive Problems?

There are benefits to front-, rear- and all-wheel drive cars, but for the average commuter, front-wheel drive vehicles should satisfy all around needs. However, steering problems in front-wheel drive cars can occur for a variety of reasons.

CV Joints

    Constant velocity (CV) joints are a front-wheel drive component that maintains constant rotation. A damaged CV joint causes a clicking sound and can wear large grooves and, if not fixed, can lead to loss of forward or reverse drive capabilities, according to Auto Speed's Michael Knowling.

Toe Problems

    Properly aligned tires should be pointed in the same direction and square to one another, according to AA1 Car. Even on front-wheel drive vehicles, rear and front toe should be aligned. If rear toe is off, a rear axle steering condition can occur that affects steering.

Camber

    Camber, the angle of a vehicle's wheel, should be identical from side to side, according to Family Car's Charles Ofria. On front-wheel drive cars, if the camber is different from side to side the car will pull in one direction; this indicates that a part is worn or bent, which requires repair.

Caster

    Ofria explains that when turning a steering wheel, the angle of the pivot of a turn is called the caster. Like camber, if the caster is not properly adjusted, it must be repaired or replaced, as a caster that is different from side to side will either pull the car in one direction or cause problems in straight line tracking, according to Ofria.

How to Tell If a Fuel Pump Is Bad?

How to Tell If a Fuel Pump Is Bad?

If your vehicle will not start up or run, or is running very badly and acting like it is out of gas when you know it isn't, there is a chance that your fuel pump has stopped working properly. When your fuel pump is malfunctioning, it can completely stop your vehicle from operating. It may also cause your car to perform very poorly while driven, and your car may stall frequently. If you believe that your fuel pump is malfunctioning, you should repair it immediately. There are several ways to tell if your fuel pump is the culprit for your car's problems.

Instructions

    1

    Try to start your car. If it attempts to start but never actually fires up, there is a reasonably good chance that a bad fuel pump may be the reason why. Because your fuel pump's job is to provide fuel to the motor, when it malfunctions your car will not get the proper amount of fuel.

    2

    Listen for the fuel pump: Turn your car's key to the "start" or "on" position, but do not actually try to turn the car over. Make sure your radio is off and you are in a quiet environment--if cars are passing by nearby, you might not hear what you're listening for. Listen carefully for a electronic sounding whining, whirring or humming noise that will come from the area around your vehicle's fuel tank. If you do not hear anything, chances are that your fuel pump is not coming on the way it is supposed to.

    3

    Pay attention to how the car is running. Your fuel pump may still be the problem even if your car will start. In the event that your car does start but acts like it is almost out of gas even though you know it has plenty, your fuel pump may be the cause. The fuel pump's job is to deliver fuel to the vehicle's motor. If it is not delivering fuel, or if it is delivering too much fuel, too little fuel or fuel in spurts, your car is going to cough, spit, sputter and stall as if it were out of gas.

    4

    Check the power to your fuel pump by connecting a voltage meter to the vehicle's fuel pump wiring. How the voltage meter will connect depends on your type of vehicle. Turn the car on, but do not attempt to start it. If your fuel pump is not getting any power, than the problem is likely to be in your wiring and not with the pump itself. If your fuel pump is getting plenty of steady power but can not be heard turning on, then chances are it is the fuel pump itself that is broken.

How to Troubleshoot Code P0420 on a 1999 Pontiac Montana

How to Troubleshoot Code P0420 on a 1999 Pontiac Montana

Receiving a diagnostic trouble code of "P0420: Catalyst efficiency below threshold" from a scanner hints at why the check engine light on your 1999 Pontiac Montana is on, but it provides no information on how to troubleshoot the problem.



The vehicle's computer monitors oxygen sensors before and after the catalytic converter, varies the engine's fuel-to-air mixture between rich and lean, and measures the converter's response to the change in fuel-to-air mixture. If the response falls outside a specific set of guidelines, the check engine light is turned on and the computer stores the diagnostic trouble code P0420.

Instructions

    1

    Verify there are no other known mechanical or running problems. The engine must be mechanically sound and running well for proper diagnosis. The computer test that sets the code assumes there are no mechanical problems, such as burning oil or running rough. If there are known problems, correct these issues first.

    2

    Use your scan tool or trouble code reader to verify no other codes are set within the Montana's computer. If there are, those will need to be diagnosed and repaired first. If there are no other codes, clear the trouble code P0420 with the scan tool or code reader. Alternatively, disconnect the negative battery cable for at least 30 seconds to clear the codes, and then reconnect the battery cable.

    3

    Verify the code. Warm the vehicle to full operating temperature. Turn off the air conditioner and allow the vehicle to idle for 10 minutes. If the code returns, it will turn on the check engine light. If the code does not return, turn the vehicle off, restart it and allow it to idle for 10 minutes several times.

    If the code does not return after several attempts, the problem was intermittent and cannot be verified. Wait until the problem returns to troubleshoot from the beginning again.

    4

    Safely raise the vehicle on a hard, flat, level surface. Set the parking brake, ensure the Pontiac Montana is in park and chock the wheels to prevent the vehicle from rolling. Lift the car with an automotive jack. Place jack stands under the vehicle as a safety precaution to prevent it from falling.

    5

    Inspect the catalytic converter closely using a creeper and a flashlight or trouble light. The catalytic converter is directly behind the engine, underneath the vehicle. The converter sits between the driver's and passenger's foot wells. Inspect it for dark discoloration, dents or holes. Tap the converter with a rubber mallet, listening for internal rattles. Dark discoloration indicates the converter overheated. Overheating damages the converter internally.

    If the catalytic converter is damaged, clear the code with the scan tool and replace the converter. Test drive the vehicle to verify the repair.

    6

    Look for exhaust leaks. The computer monitors the oxygen sensors to verify proper operation of the catalytic converter. Exhaust leaks will change the oxygen content measured by the oxygen sensors in the exhaust, and may set a false P0420 code. If leaks are found, repair them, clear the code and test drive the vehicle to verify the repair.

    7

    Inspect the oxygen sensors. Damage to the oxygen sensors, oxygen sensor wiring or connectors in the wiring can mislead the computer with a false reading. If damage is found, repair or replace the oxygen sensors, clear the code and test drive the vehicle to verify the repair.

    8

    Replace the catalytic converter assembly if no other issues have been found. Clear the code, and test drive the vehicle to verify the repair is complete.

Senin, 15 Maret 2010

How Do I Check My Mass Air Flow Sensor on My 97 Nissan Pickup XE

The mass air flow sensor on a 1997 Nissan pickup XE is of the hot wire types: The vehicle's computer heats the wire to a predetermined temperature and then maintains it; in order to maintain the temperature, the computer must vary the voltage in accordance with the changes in the air volume. The computer uses this voltage variance to determine engine load and to calculate ignition and fuel injection timing. There are several tests and symptoms to determine MAF sensor failure.

Instructions

    1

    Recognize the symptoms of a MAF sensor failure. A 1997 Nissan truck experiencing a MAF sensor failure will not operate over 3,000 rpm. The computer will go into a failsafe mode and modulate the fuel injectors to limit the rpm. The computer will also turn the "check engine" light on and set a code for the MAF sensor. The 1997 Nissan truck also has a problem with the ground on this sensor. This poor ground causes not only driveability issues, but it will also set false codes indicating an oxygen sensor failure and fuel injector leaks.

    2

    Locate the MAF sensor on the passenger's side of the engine, leading to the throttle body. Look at the electrical plug closely. On close inspection, notice that there are three wires in a straight row, but four terminals. The lead terminal on one side is vacant. Next to the empty terminal is the power supply wire: the middle wire is the ground and the last wire on the opposite side is the signal wire.

    3

    Connect the black voltmeter lead to a good ground on the intake manifold. Use the red lead to probe the last outside wire, or signal. Do not disconnect the plug; use the pointy end to pierce the wire. Have a helper start the truck. Watch the voltage as the helper slowly raises and lowers the rpm. The voltage should rise smoothly and drop with the rpm. If it doesnt, the signal is bad.

    4

    Have the helper snap the throttle a couple of times while you watch the voltmeter closely. The voltage should climb as rapidly as the throttle is snapped, and return equally as fast. Before condemning the sensor, do one more test. As mentioned earlier, this particular truck has problems with the sensor's ground.

    5

    Move the red probe from the sensor signal to the middle ground wire. With the engine running at an idle, the voltmeter must read .10, or a tenth of a volt. If the reading is anything other than this value, the ground is suspect. Add an additional 16-gauge wire to the existing ground wire. Remove some of the insulation on the wire at the connector and solder this additional wire to the present one. Attach the other end of the wire to the intake manifold. You will be back in business with the extra ground.

How to Check an Evinrude Stator

How to Check an Evinrude Stator

If your Evinrude outboard boat motor will not start and you have ruled out obvious problems like a dead battery, you can run a simple test on your motor's stator. This is a part of the rotor system that interacts to create motion. A stator can be easily tested with a digital multimeter. Stator resistance ranges vary from motor to motor. Before performing the test you will have to determine the proper stator range for your motor. Do this by either consulting your owner's manual or contacting a marine repair shop.

Instructions

    1

    Remove your negative battery cable.

    2

    Remove the engine cover and locate your stator. It is directly on top of your motor's block, near the spark plugs and points. Check that the stator plate is secure; tighten if necessary with a socket set.

    3

    Set your multimeter to the "Ohms" setting and turn the power on.

    4

    Place the positive (red) end of your meter's probe against the blue wire connected to your stator.

    5

    Place the negative (black) lead to the negative terminal of your stator. If the resistance falls within the ranges appropriate for your engine, your stator is working properly. However, if the resistance is higher than that of your engine's maximum range, the stator will need to be replaced.

Minggu, 14 Maret 2010

How to Test the Auto Vacuum System

How to Test the Auto Vacuum System

A vacuum leak can cause major running issues and give you fits because they can be so difficult to find. Your vehicle has hundreds of small vacuum lines running to all different components that keep it running properly. There are two different ways to test the vacuum system in a car: testing the overall vacuum and "smoke testing" the system. Both of these tests do require special tools, but are relatively easy once you have these tools.

Instructions

Testing the Overall Vacuum

    1

    Locate a vacuum line that is under the hood of the car. A brake booster hose is a good source. Remove the vacuum hose by loosening the hose clamp and pulling it off by hand.

    2

    Find an adapter in the vacuum tester kit that fits the hose you have selected. Plug the adapter into the hose and attach the adapter to the tester.

    3

    Start the vehicle and let it reach operating temperature.

    4

    Take the reading from the gauge and compare it to the vacuum specifications in the repair manual. There will be a range that is acceptable.

Smoke Testing a Vacuum System (Small leaks)

    5

    Locate a good vacuum source--again, the brake booster vacuum line is a good source for this test. Use a screw driver to loosen and remove the hose clamp and pull the hose off by hand.

    6

    Press the conical adapter into the hose until a good seal is formed.

    7

    Fill the smoke machine with the chemical per the instructions. Plug the machine in, or connect it to the battery, and turn it on. Allow the machine to run for 30 minute to an hour, depending on its size.

    8

    Use the UV light and the UV light glasses to search the entire vehicle for smoke slowly leaking from a vacuum source. Some disassembly may be required to determine the exactly location of the leak.

    9

    Determine the repairs once the leak is located.

Sabtu, 13 Maret 2010

What Causes Moisture Build Up Under My Truck's Oil Cap?

You remove your engine oil fill cap to find the dreaded white sludge that has accumulated on the bottom of the cap. The first thought that comes to mind is that water is mixing with your engine oil to create this vile sludge, which is absolutely true. Determining the root cause of this mixture and repairing it is imperative if you wish to prevent expensive future repair bills. There is a variety of reasons for this buildup of sludge ranging from simple moisture build up to severe internal gasket or component failure.

Natural Moisture Buildup

    Moisture naturally builds up inside an engine, especially in cooler areas and damper climates. Generally as the engine is put into service and the temperature rises, any built up moisture is burnt off by the heat the engine produces. Making short trips, on the other hand doesn't allow the engine to warm up completely, giving the opportunity for moisture to accumulate and mix with oil on the bottom of the oil cap. Moisture can also accumulate and create sludge on the cap if the seal on the cap is worn or damaged. The best practice is to clean the bottom of the cap with brake cleaner and always allow the engine to warm up when taking short trips.

Blown Head Gasket

    If the vehicle has recently overheated or started running funny, the white sludge on your cap could be a preview of the oil traveling through the engine and sitting in the oil pan. A blown head gasket will allow coolant to leak into the oil passages and/or the combustion chamber. Coolant entering the oil system creates the milky substance almost instantly and is very damaging to internal engine bearings. If you don't repair a blown head gasket right away, you will be stuck with a rather large bill to perform a complete rebuild of your engine from the bottom up.

Cleaning Habits

    Naturally anytime you spray and engine down with De-greaser and water it presents the opportunity for water and moisture to work its way into the engine. Using a high powered pressure sprayer can literally force water through engine seals and under the oil cap, power steering cap, air filter housing and dipsticks. The best practice for engine cleaning is to use a lower pressure spray and avoid engine sealing areas like valve cover to head mating surfaces and intake to head mating surfaces. Never spray the air filter housing or air intake tube, dirt on the outside of the engine will do far less harm than moisture that finds its way into the engine.

Determining The Cause

    To determine whether the sludge is something to be concerned with or not there are several things you can check. Inspect the oil dipstick and examine the color and quality of the oil from the crankcase. If the oil appears normal, chances are you were subject to moisture and have nothing to worry about. If the milky substance exists on the oil dipstick you have a more serious problem and shouldn't drive the vehicle until it can be repaired. Check the coolant level and quality, if you appear to have been loosing coolant and you don't have any apparent leak, chances are you have a failed head gasket or intake manifold gasket. If coolant is leaking into the engine oil, the only way to find the direct source is to begin tearing down the engine and searching for the cause.

Jumat, 12 Maret 2010

How to Tell If the Fuel Regulator Is Bad

How to Tell If the Fuel Regulator Is Bad

Fuel pressure is one of the most important measurement levels in your engine, because it affects the efficiency and quality of your car's performance. If the fuel pressure dips too low, your engine may not get enough fuel to start, or you may experience rough idling and misfiring. Fuel pressure that is too high leads to higher carbon monoxide emissions and lower fuel economy.

Instructions

    1

    Attach the lead from the fuel pressure gauge to the pressure test fitting. Check your manufacturer's specifications to locate the fitting in the engine for your make and model. Not every car has a test fitting; if yours does not, you can work the gauge's attachment into the fuel line -- just make sure you do it in front of the injector fuel rail.

    2

    Turn the car's motor on, and let the engine idle for a minute or two. Check the gauge and wait for the pressure reading to stabilize. Your normal level will vary, depending on your car's make and model. The manufacturer's specifications will tell you what the normal level should be.

    3

    Detach the vacuum hose from the fuel pressure regulator.

    4

    Check the gauge again. The pressure should have increased between 8 and 12 psi. If there is no change, either the regulator itself is not working, or there is a clog or leak in the vacuum hose.

    5

    Look inside the vacuum hose. If some gasoline has accumulated inside it, the diaphragm inside your fuel regulator has a leak.

How to Test an Ignition Coil on a 1998 GMC Yukon

The GMC Yukon was introduced in 1992. The 1998 GMC Yukon was equipped with a 5.7-liter V-8 engine capable of producing 255-horsepower and 330 foot-pounds of torque. The GMC 5.7-liter V-8 is more popularly known as the "350." The ignition coil on the 1998 Yukon can be tested three different ways to give you a positive identification as to whether the coil is good or bad. Testing the module should take no longer than a half hour to complete.

Instructions

    1

    Open the hood of the Yukon. Remove all of the wires from the ignition coil.

    2

    Set the multimeter to the high scale on the ohms setting, or the setting that looks like an upside down horseshoe. Insert the red probe of the multimeter on one of the electrical connector prongs located in the top of the coil. Place the other probe against the body of the coil. The measurement should be infinite, or the multimeter should provide you with a constantly moving amount of numbers. If the multimeter does not provide you with an infinite reading, the coil is bad.

    3

    Set the multimeter to the low scale on the ohms setting. Insert the red probe against one of the electrical connector prongs on the top of the coil. Place the black probe against the second prong, directly next to the first probe. The reading should be 0.1 ohms. If the reading is not 0.1 ohms, replace the coil.

    4

    Set the multimeter to high scale ohms. Place the red probe on one of the electrical connector prongs in the top of the coil. Place the second probe onto the spark plug connector prong next to the electrical connector on the top of the coil. The reading should be between 5,000 and 25,000 ohms. If the reading is not within these specifications, replace the coil.