Selasa, 30 November 2010

Trouble With My 2000 Ford Taurus Leaking Water

Trouble With My 2000 Ford Taurus Leaking Water

Your 2000 Ford Taurus has four sources that may leak water. These include the cooling system, windshield washers, air conditioning and weather. A water leak may signal serious trouble on the horizon. Check with your Ford service department to see if there are any recurring issues to look for. It's possible a service alert or recall was missed which may remedy the problem. You should always eliminate the easy to diagnose items first. Begin by moving the vehicle to a level, firm surface. Park and leave your Taurus there for at least two hours if it's hot.

Instructions

Windshield Washer, Air Conditioning and Weather

    1

    Insert a funnel into the windshield washer reservoir and fill it. If there is a leak in this component, it should appear on the ground near the passenger's side wheel. Turn the key in the ignition to the "On" position but do not crank the engine. Activate the windshield washers with the hood open to check the hoses.

    2

    Run a hose over the windshield for several minutes to locate any drip points. A leaky windshield seal will allow water inside the car. Wet carpets and a moldy smell are warning signs. A bad heater core or A/C drain hose may mimic this problem.

    3

    Look for a small hose underneath the car near the passenger's foot area. Air conditioning releases water that runs under the floorboard. If the hose becomes plugged, water cannot escape and may create a sloshing sound or leak inside. Push a bent coat hanger into the hose a few inches to remove any obstruction. If the hose is not visible from underneath, it may have pulled inside the car. Check under the dash on the passenger's side to make sure the hose is routed through the floorboard.

Cooling System

    4

    Remove the cap on the left side of the radiator. If the water is more than 2 inches below the top, you may have a cooling system leak. Top off the coolant and replace the cap. Check the overfill bottle on the left fender. If it's cracked or wet, that could be your problem. If it's low, fill it to the "Cold" line and close the top. Look over the entire radiator's exterior for antifreeze or water leaks.

    5
    Hose clamps are a potential leak point.
    Hose clamps are a potential leak point.

    Examine the heater hoses, which pass through the middle of the firewall. Follow them to their ends and check for leaks. Grab the hose ends and gently move them back and forth. Watch for any seepage. Shine a flashlight down behind the radiator cap to see the lower radiator hose. Inspect the upper radiator hose where it joins the thermostat housing and all around the engine for gasket leaks. Survey all hoses, checking for bulges. Tighten all hose clamps with a pair of channel-lock pliers.

    6

    Start the engine. Warm the car up to operating temperature as shown on the dash gauge (about 10 minutes). The water pump is behind the drive belt on the passenger's side of the engine. There's a large pulley directly in front of the pump. If the small hole in the pump housing is wet, it needs to be replaced. Check the gasket for drips as well.

    7

    Turn the heater on high with the engine running and wait a few minutes. If you smell antifreeze, this indicates a heater core leak, which requires expert knowledge to repair. Feel the passenger's side carpet for wetness. This is another clue to a potential heater problem. Replace any lost fluid with a 50/50 mix of water and antifreeze.

Senin, 29 November 2010

A Problem With Excess Engine Oil in a 2005 Nissan Frontier

There are numerous problems that can occur due to excess oil in a 2005 Nissan Frontier engine. Frontiers equipped with Nissan's 2.5-liter four-cylinder engine have an oil capacity of 5 1/8 quarts, while the 4.0-liter V-6 models have a capacity of 5 3/8 quarts. Depending on the amount that the oil is overfilled beyond these capacities, you may experience performance issues and/or serious engine malfunctions may occur.

Oil Flow Problems

    Filling the oil to the recommended capacity allows the engine to properly circulate the oil to lubricate and cool internal engine components. When the oil is overfilled, excess oil collects in the crankcase. The rotating crankshaft at the bottom of the engine therefore has to churn within the excess oil. This creates resistance against the rotation of the crankshaft, which leads to diminished horsepower and fuel economy.

Major Engine Malfunctions

    In addition to performance issues, enough excess oil in your 2005 Nissan Frontier can lead to major engine malfunctions. Due to the crankshaft's churning of the oil in the crankcase, an effect known as aeration can occur. Aeration creates air bubbles in the oil flow, which can build up over time into a foamy mixture. The engine is not able to properly pump aerated oil, and therefore oil-starvation and overheating problems can occur, damaging vital engine parts. Furthermore, excess oil raises the internal pressure of the engine. This increase in pressure can lead to damaged engine seals, such as in the case of a blown head gasket.

Checking the Oil

    Nissan recommends that you check the 2005 Frontier's oil when it is at normal operating temperature. To do so, park the vehicle on a flat surface and allow the engine to idle for approximately 10 minutes. Then, turn the engine off and allow an additional 10 minutes for the oil to settle. Open the hood and remove the oil dipstick, located on the right side of the engine, just in front of the exhaust manifold. The dipstick can be identified by a yellow handle. Wipe the dipstick clean, then fully reinsert it in place. Remove it once more and observe the oil level relative to the "H" and "L" markings on the dipstick.

Draining Excess Oil

    If you discover that the oil was overfilled in your 2005 Nissan Pathfinder, you must drain the excess oil immediately to ensure continued engine performance and reliability. To do so, park your Frontier on a solid, flat surface. Use a floor jack to raise the front of the vehicle and support the chassis on jack stands. Place a drain pan directly under the oil pan and remove the oil drain plug, located on the side of the drain pan. Allow a small amount of the oil to drain, then replace the drain plug. Lower the vehicle off the jack stands and check the oil level. Repeat the process until the dipstick indicates that the oil level is beneath the "H" line.

How to Check the Voltage Regulator on a 1968 VW

How to Check the Voltage Regulator on a 1968 VW

1968 Volkswagens -- like any vehicles with an alternator or generator and a battery -- have voltage regulators. A regulator prevents an alternator, generator or battery from loading its circuit with too much current. Too much current blows fuses, burns out lightbulbs and melts electrical systems. Fortunately, checking, or even replacing, a voltage regulator is simple. If you can locate the battery and you have a multimeter, you can test the regulator on your old VW.

Instructions

    1

    Turn the dial on the multimeter to "volts." Place the positive multimeter probe on the positive battery terminal and the negative probe on the negative terminal. With the VW's engine off, the multimeter should display a reading of slightly higher than 12 volts; between 12.2 to 12.4 volts is acceptable..

    2

    Have your assistant turn the car on and allow it to idle. Carefully touch the probes to the battery terminals. If the alternator or generator is working properly, the multimeter display number should increase to read between about 13.6 to 13.8 volts.

    3

    Ask your assistant to slowly increase the engine to 2500 rpm, then to 35,000. The multimeter display should climb to between 13.8 to 14.5 volts and stop. If the multimeter displays more than 14.8 and continues to climb as the engine revs to greater rpm, the voltage regulator is bad and must be replaced.

Signs & Symptoms of a Faulty Ignition Switch in a 1996 Honda Accord

The ignition switch in your 1996 Honda Accord works by signaling the starter and other electrical components of your car to turn on when the key is inserted and turned in the key tumbler. A faulty or malfunctioning ignition switch can cause your 1996 Honda Accord not to start up or operate properly. You might get several clues if the ignition switch on your Honda is going out.

Not Starting

    If you turn the key on your Honda and nothing happens, even though you know the vehicle has plenty of gasoline and a fully charged battery, there is a chance that a faulty ignition switch is to blame. The broken or malfunctioning ignition switch can stop your vehicle from starting because it will not transmit the message to start to the starter, which is actually responsible for starting the engine.

Stalling

    Honda issued a service bulletin for some of its vehicles that stated that a problem with the ignition switch disengaging during travel was causing the vehicles to stall out during operation. The 1996 Accord was not included in this bulletin, however this problem can still occur if the ignition switch in a specific vehicle breaks or malfunctions.

Low Voltage

    A faulty ignition switch can cause the Honda to crank hard, struggle to start or even cause error codes to be generated due to low voltage related problems telling the vehicle's computer that the car is not receiving enough power to run. This can cause a variety of problems, including premature wear on the spark plugs and starter as well as electrical systems.

1998 Ford Contour Fuel Door Flapper Problems

The Ford Contour, a compact, four-door sedan, was manufactured from 1995 to 2000. Although Edmunds.com reports that the Contour exhibits "spirited performance and composed handling," it is not exempt from equipment problems. In particular, the 1998 model is prone to fuel door problems.

Problem

    Ford technical service bulletins indicate that the 1998 Contour suffers from fuel filler door issues. The main problem is that the fuel door is difficult to close and will not close completely.

Warning

    Although your vehicle's gas cap protects the entry way into the fuel tank, a malfunctioning fuel door might leave you at risk. An open fuel door may allow someone to open your fuel cap and siphon your gasoline.

Solution

    There are multiple options available if you wish to fix your fuel door. You can replace your existing fuel door for about $20 (as of March 2011) or purchase a new latch or lock for your existing fuel door, which cost approximately $10 each. This does not include labor costs.

How to Troubleshoot a 2 Stroke Gas Engine

How to Troubleshoot a 2 Stroke Gas Engine

Figuring out what causes a two-stroke engine to malfunction or perform weakly typically involves identifying what is throwing off the fuel/air mixture. Additionally, the ignition timing, if set incorrectly, can also contribute to problem performance. By both checking the ignition and the timing systems, you can correct the imbalance easily and get the motor running properly again.

Instructions

Carburetor Issues

    1

    Pull the ignition cap off the spark plug sticking out of the engine cylinder. Place the cap aside for a moment and remove the spark plug with a socket wrench. Twist the plug free when loose and examine the plug tip color.

    2

    Use the color of the spark plug to identify if the engine needs more fuel (white), less fuel (oily black), or is running correctly (brown). Replace the spark plug with a new one and reinstall the ignition cap. Open up the carburetor bottom with a screwdriver or Crescent wrench and expose the jets. Insert larger jets for more fuel and smaller jets for less fuel.

    3

    Reseal the carburetor body. Unscrew the bolt or clamp holding the carburetor filter on and remove it. Replace the filter if it is foam or use carburetor cleaner spray to clean it if it is metal. Reinstall the filter, tightening its clamp again. Run the engine and perform the spark plug test again until the plug tip is brown.

Timing Concerns

    4

    Locate the flywheel on your engine. Use a flywheel holder tool to secure the part while you loosen the flywheel securing nut with a socket wrench. Insert a flywheel puller tool to push the flywheel off its axle by screwing it inward into the flywheel center threads. Catch the flywheel as it comes loose and remove it.

    5

    Examine the ignition stator plate underneath the flywheel. Confirm that the unit is positioned correctly with the timing marks on the engine case. Use a screwdriver to unscrew the securing screws on the plate if it is positioned incorrectly. Reposition the plate and tighten the screws again.

    6

    Reinstall the flywheel and secure it again with the flywheel holder tool. Twist the flywheel nut back onto the axle after the flywheel and tighten it with your fingers. Finish tightening the nut with a torque wrench until it reaches the appropriate tightness for your particular engine -- check your engine documentation for the correct torque setting on the flywheel nut. Start the engine again and monitor the performance.

How to Troubleshoot a Sunfire Radiator Fan

How to Troubleshoot a Sunfire Radiator Fan

Due to the transverse layout of its engine, the Pontiac Sunfire uses an electric radiator to pass additional cooling air through the radiator, keeping the engine from overheating during extended operation and stressful loads. The engine may overheat if the radiator fan stops working, an event that can cause considerable damage to the engine if the vehicle isnt stopped in time.

Instructions

    1

    Open the hood and locate the fuse box above the battery. Remove the fuse panel and pull out the radiator fan fuse with a fuse puller. Inspect the metal blade on the inside of the fuse if the fuse casing is transparent or use a fuse tester to verify the fuses operation if the fuse casing is opaque. Replace the fuse as necessary.

    2

    Inspect the wires running from the radiator fan to the remainder of the engines wiring harness. Have an experienced automotive technician replace any broken, frayed or otherwise damaged wiring as soon as possible.

    3

    Remove the radiator fan relay from the fuse block. Connect the ohmmeter leads to the positive and negative terminals on the relay and set the device on its lowest ohm range. The ohmmeter should read "Infinite resistance." If the device reads any amount of resistance, replace the radiator fan relay.

    4

    Locate the engine coolant temperature sensor on the block of the engine. Turn the engine on and disconnect the plug leading to the sensor. If the fans fail to activate after disconnecting the plug, the radiator fan motor has failed and requires replacement.

How to Diagnose a Bad Motor Mount

How to Diagnose a Bad Motor Mount

Motor mounts support an automobile's engine and transmission. A bad motor mount will not properly restrict and cushion the engine or transmission, which can result in damage. An engine or transmission that is moving too far or too quickly due to a bad motor mount may strike objects inside the engine compartment or the side of the engine compartment itself. A thumping sound from the engine compartment during rapid acceleration or deceleration is the usual indication of a bad motor mount. If you hear this sound, you should inspect and repair the motor mounts before serious damage occurs.

Instructions

    1

    Park the vehicle on a flat surface. Place the wheel chocks in front of and behind the rear wheels of the vehicle to restrict movement forward and backward. Raise the hood.

    2

    Use the flashlight or work light to locate the motor mounts. Mounts may be located on the top and bottom of the engine and transmission. The exact number and location of mounts will vary depending on the model of the vehicle.

    3

    Visually inspect each mount for problems. Mounts that are cracked, show areas of wear or have corrosion require replacement.

    4

    Stand off to the side of the vehicle while observing the engine and any visible upper motor mounts. Have a helper start the engine. Instruct the helper to depress and firmly hold the brake pedal while placing the vehicle into drive. Observe the engine and upper mounts. The engine should move smoothly, without a sudden jolt. Movements that are rapid or in excess of one-half an inch indicate a motor mount problem.

    5

    Have the helper shift the vehicle into reverse and again observe for movements. Have the helper slowly shift between drive and reverse a few times. Note if the engine moves more on one side, the front or the back. The engine will move more on the side attached to the bad mount because the bad mount allows freer movement. Have the helper put the vehicle in park and turn off the engine.

    6

    Use the pry bar to apply force to each motor mount. Flex the mount both toward and away from the engine. Mounts should give slightly, but should not move rapidly or freely.

    7

    Use the pry bar to apply force between the motor mount's mounting plate and the mounting surface of the vehicle. Movement will indicate loose or damaged mounting bolts.

Minggu, 28 November 2010

How to Troubleshoot a Nissan Maxima Fuel Filter

The fuel filter on a Nissan Maxima is located in-line between the fuel tank and the engine. Generally, it will be located in the engine compartment on the driver's side firewall, depending on the year. If it is not on the firewall, it will be under the vehicle on the driver's side. It is actually one of two filters, one being the filter screen on the bottom intake on the fuel pump in the tank. This filter prevents any sediment in the fuel tank from entering the pump. The inline filter is the secondary line of defense to protect the fuel injectors.

Instructions

    1

    Open the hood. Remove the lid on the fuse and relay center on the driver's side fenderwell. Pull out the fuse for the fuel pump. Start the car, if possible, and allow it to run until it stalls for lack of fuel. Reinstall the fuel pump fuse. Locate the fuel filter on the driver's side firewall below the brake master cylinder. Remove the mounting bracket for the filter using a socket and ratchet.

    2

    Remove the lower inlet hose using a Phillips screwdriver to loosen the clamp. Pull the hose off and install the fuel pressure gauge using a hose line adapter from the kit. Turn the ignition key on and look at the pressure. If the pressure is 40 lbs. per square inch, plus or minus a pound, the fuel pump is good. If it is much less, the fuel pump needs to be replaced.

    3

    Remove the fuel pressure gauge and install the fuel inlet hose on the fuel filter again. Place the filter in the mounting bracket. Mount the bracket back on the firewall and tighten the bracket mounting bolt. If the pressure was good, you need to find out if the pressure drops after going through the fuel filter. This entails hooking the fuel gauge up to the fuel injector side of the fuel line.

    4

    Connect the fuel gauge to the fuel supply rail above the fuel injectors. The problem here is to locate a possible point to connect the fuel gauge. Depending on the year of the car, it may or may not have a Schrader valve on the fuel rail. If it does, it is a simple matter of removing the valve core from the Schrader valve with the core remover tool and threading the fuel gauge on the Schrader. If there is no Schrader valve, the fuel line must be removed from the fuel rail.

    5

    Loosen the hose clamp with the Phillips screwdriver, and pull the fuel line hose off the end of the fuel rail. Get an adapter from the kit that threads into the end of the fuel gauge hose and has a nipple to insert into the fuel supply hose. Push the nipple into the hose and tighten the clamp. Turn the ignition key on and note the fuel pressure. If the fuel pressure is the same as the previous check, the fuel filter is good. If the fuel pressure shows exceedingly low, use the needle nose vise grips to pinch off the return hose coming out of the fuel pressure regulator on the opposite side of the fuel rail.

    6

    Pull the vacuum hose off the top of the pressure regulator as well. Turn the key off and back on to repressurize the system. Look at the fuel pressure now. If the pressure went up to normal, the fuel pressure regulator is bad and needs to be replaced. Look at the port on top of the fuel regulator and see if fuel can be seen coming out of this port. If there is, replace the regulator. If no fuel is seen, replace the vacuum hose on this port and replace the fuel filter.

    7

    Remove the fuel gauge from the fuel rail or fuel inlet line. Install the core in the Schrader and tighten it, or in the case of the fuel inlet line being used for the test, loosen the clamp, remove the gauge and install the hose on the fuel rail. Tighten the clamp.

Sabtu, 27 November 2010

Symptoms That a Transmission Hose Is Loose

Symptoms That a Transmission Hose Is Loose

Even the smallest of malfunctions can be enough to drastically reduce your car's performance or even cost you thousands of dollars in repairs if you do not identify and solve the problem as fast as possible. Because a transmission is such an integral part of keeping your car moving, making sure you can identify and fix loose transmission hoses is no different. To keep your transmission in top shape, there are some important things you should know that will help you identify symptoms of a loose transmission hose.

Not Shifting

    If you are having trouble shifting gears or cannot shift gears at all, there is the possibility that you have a loose transmission hose.

Shifting Slipping

    A loose transmission hose can often cause leaks in transmission fluid. If the loose hose is causing a leak there is a good chance that you will experience slipping when attempting to shift gears. In a car with an automatic transmission, this is often characterized by a feeling that the car is slow to engage or jumping when shifting into the next gear. In a manual transmission, it will seem difficult to shift to another gear.

Transmission Fluid

    If a transmission hose is loose you may have abnormally low transmission fluid levels. Changing the transmission fluid every 24,000 miles is recommended but if you check the transmission fluid on a monthly basis and it is abnormally low, your suspicions should raise for a transmission fluid leak caused by a loose transmission hose. This will cause unwanted air to mix with the transmission fluid and destabilize the necessary pressure needed to apply transmission fluid to the components of your transmission. If this is the case, listen for bubbling noises when checking the transmission fluid level with a dipstick.

Discoloration

    You should inspect the entire transmission hose as well as its connection points for any discoloration. If you do have a loose transmission hose that causes a leak you will often find discoloration and oxidation from the transmission fluid around the loose or leaking area. A rust or light-brown color, especially around the connection points, is a sign that you have a loose transmission hose.

What Are the Causes of Brake Booster Failures?

What Are the Causes of Brake Booster Failures?

In the 1950s, Bendix crated the "Master-Vac" brake booster, which is the design that most of today's brake boosters are modeled after. The brake booster operates using vacuum from the engine and internal valves. There are several common reasons a brake booster fails.

Oil Leakage

    Over time, a master cylinder may begin to leak. If the O-rings sealing the piston inside the master cylinder malfunction, brake fluid will begin leaking back into the brake booster. Brake fluid wreaks havoc on rubber seals and valves and eventually causes the diaphragm or valves inside the booster to fail. This is why a lot of replacement boosters come with a master cylinder already installed.

Age

    Age is another common reason for failure. The booster's body is typically constructed of steel and is put together in two halves. The seal between the two halves can begin to rust or simply separate due to age and start leaking. When this leaks, the vacuum pressure is not adequate to allow the booster to operate properly. This is easily diagnosed by a hissing sound coming from the booster.

Defect

    Just as most auto parts, the booster is mass produced. The production process can lead to some incorrectly manufactured boosters making it to the auto parts store. These errors may lead to immediate or premature booster failure.

Wheel Speed Sensor Symptoms

Wheel Speed Sensor Symptoms

A wheel speed sensor is an essential component in automobile anti-lock braking systems. It communicates the rotation and speed of each wheel to the vehicle's electronic control module which then regulates hydraulic brake pressure to keep the wheels from locking up. A failed wheel speed sensor causes malfunctions in a vehicle's ABS system. Failure to address this problem may prove costly when braking to avoid a potential accident.

No Anti-lock Brakes

    According to automotive repair website AA1 Car, a malfunctioning wheel speed sensor will render a vehicle's anti-lock brakes inoperable. This will usually trigger an ABS warning light to illuminate on the vehicle's dashboard. The reason for the failure is related to the lack of information being sent to the vehicle's electronic control module. Without the wheel speed sensor, the computer can't tell if the car's wheels are locking up or not and is forced to shut down the system.

Less Wheel Traction

    If the ABS warning light in your vehicle does not illuminate when a wheel speed sensor is malfunctioning, there are other symptoms to determine if the sensor is truly the problem. If your vehicle experiences a noticeable lack of traction control when braking quickly or experiences decreased handling in poor weather conditions, the wheel speed sensor may be to blame. Frayed wire connections running from the sensor to the electronic control module can also be the culprits.

ABS and Normal Brakes

    A malfunctioning wheel speed sensor does not normally impact regular brake functioning -- only the anti-lock braking system. If your ABS warning and check brake lights are both illuminated on your dashboard, there is a serious problem with your vehicle. Multiple sensor failures or degradation in fluid lines may have impaired your vehicle's brake function. The vehicle should not be driven until this problem can be assessed and repaired.

Jumat, 26 November 2010

Chevy Lumina Van Stalling Problems

Constant or episodic stalling in a vehicle is not only inconvenient, it's a good way for your vehicle to be sidelined indefinitely. If you experience this with a Chevrolet Lumina van, it could be anything from the coolant system to the transmission.

Basics

    The first thing you want to do is look for a coolant system problem. Such issues are notorious for causing stalling. Check the coolant fluid level and make sure it is at the proper height. Also, check to see if you can smell coolant or see it leaking on the ground. It will usually appear greenish or blue in color and have a strong odor.

Features

    After you have filled the coolant, monitor it to make sure it isn't leaking. Consider having the radiator and the water pump of the vehicle examined. The stalling may also indicate a problem in your transmission.

Considerations

    Although many of the Lumina van's years of production saw recalls, they did not directly pertain to either the engine cooling system or the transmission. However, there were consistent problems with the fuel lines. There is the possibility that there is a connection between the stalling and the fuel line. If you have a fuel line problem, especially a leak, your biggest concern is not stalling, but fire and explosion. Take it to a professional as soon as possible.

Kamis, 25 November 2010

How to Troubleshoot the Engine of a Mazda Miata

How to Troubleshoot the Engine of a Mazda Miata

Troubleshooting a Mazda Miata's engine can be relatively easy if you know exactly what you are looking for and where to look. Sometimes, however, engine problems can be a little more complex, and one type of symptom can have a couple of root causes. Instead of groping through the engine somewhat blindly, there is a way to streamline the process.The Miata's On-Board Diagnostic system can help you pinpoint potential troublesome spots within the engine.

Instructions

    1

    Climb behind the Mazda Miata's steering wheel and look beneath the steering wheel and the dashboard for the Mazda's Data Link Connector. The DLC outlet is your entry point into the Miata's computer system. You will find it to the left of the steering column, near the kick panel.

    2

    Connect an OBD-II code reader to the Miata's DLC outlet. Switch the code reader on and turn the Miata's electrical system on. OBD-II code readers are all slightly different, and their operational use varies slightly by brand and when the code reader was manufactured. Some reader devices do not need to be turned on by hand, and others require the engine running.

    3

    Retrieve the OBD-II codes from the Miata's OBD-II system. This will require either letting the reader do it automatically or punching in a command by hand. The exact process of how to do this also varies by brand of code reader so follow the instructions in the reader's manual.

    4

    Write down the active codes once they're displayed by the reader. Since you are looking specifically for engine trouble, you can ignore any code that starts with a "C," "U" or "B." Engine trouble comes in the form of "P" or "Powertrain" codes.

    5

    Differentiate between powertrain codes that are pending and those that are trouble. Pending codes are infrequent malfunctions, and they do not affect the status of your "Check Engine" light. Trouble codes are problems that are persistent and will trigger the "Check Engine" light.

    6

    Compile a list of codes on a separate sheet of paper. Write the trouble codes at the top of the paper and the pending codes at the bottom.

    7

    Find Mazda's supplemental OBD-II coding descriptions online and write out the code descriptions next to the alpha-numeric codes themselves. The generic OBD-II codes will be listed in the owner's manual for the reader. These will give you the clues needed to begin troubleshooting your Miata's engine problems.

The Effects of a Bent Rim

The Effects of a Bent Rim

Due to the centrifugal forces involved with both rolling, turning, and propelling a vehicle into motion, wheel rims require almost perfect balance and shape. Failure of the shape integrity involved can result in premature tire wear at best and critical structure failure at worst. Thus the effects of a bent wheel rim tend to be important to pay attention to before the damage increases. Some folks may feel a hard-to-see bent rim may not be worth spending money on yet, but the accident risk increase in the long-run can change the evaluation.

Damage Can Get Worse

    A bend in a wheel rim weakens the integrity of wheel. It creates a weak point that, if hit or stressed again, could actually crack the wheel rim itself. When this occurs under pressure or load, the wheel can fall apart in a critical failure, causing an accident.

Misalignment

    Aside from structural failure, a bent wheel rim may have been the event that caused the car's total wheel alignment to be thrown off. All four wheels need to be set so that they work together when the car moves. When wheel alignment gets thrown off, tire wear can become uneven, degrading tires faster than they should normally wear out. Misalignment can be noticed by the car tugging or pulling to one side.

Wheel Vibrations

    A medium to severe bent wheel rim tends to result in minor to very noticeable wheel vibrations. These frequencies will be caused by the bent wheel not operating in a smooth role and will transfer up into the vehicle frame and steering wheel. Severe vibrations may seem like the axle of the wheel is falling off the car. Continued vibration will damage the suspension system of the car, causing escalating damage. Vibrations may not be so noticeable at low speeds, but over 40 mph the effect increases significantly.

Bent Axle or Damaged Transmission

    When a bent wheel rim gets too far out of alignment it will cause stress and torque on a car transmission and axle. The pressure can begin to cause bearing failure as an uneven load makes wheel and axle bearings. Bearings will begin to develop friction which will then burn them out or cause the bearing frames to collapse.

Rabu, 24 November 2010

Ford Code 656

Whether you are a mechanic or a vehicle owner interested in do-it-yourself repair, understanding Ford diagnostic trouble codes -- DTCs -- is a must. DTCs are numerical codes that correspond with a list of mechanical trouble spots.

Obtaining DCTs

    You will need a digital diagnostic code reader to access trouble codes on your Ford vehicle. This device allows you to examine any check engine light warnings on vehicles newer than 1996. Connect the digital reader to the OBD II port located in the vehicle's interior, usually near the driver's knee, and retrieve any and all trouble codes.

Ford Code 656

    Ford code 656 is a continuous memory diagnostic code, which represents a torque converter clutch control continuous slip error. Although the code demonstrates a vehicle error, it does not indicate any further details or how to repair the problem.

Solution

    It is up to you or a mechanic to further diagnose the problem and proceed with repairs. You or a professional must thoroughly examine the vehicle's engine and transmission to further diagnose the torque converter clutch slippage. A solid starting point is calculating the TCC's slip, ramp pressure and its transmission fluid level.

My Dome Light Won't Shut Off

Dome lights inside of a vehicle operate through multiple switches. The standard control is located on an adjustable knob on the dashboard, typically to the left of the steering wheel, or on the headlight switch. Additional switches are mounted to each door and, on some vehicles, the trunk. Some modern vehicles mount a timed switch in the ignition switch. The light is controlled by a fuse that typically covers multiple items. A dome light that will not turn off means one of the switches is stuck in the "On" position.

Instructions

    1

    Adjust the dome light switch. Every vehicle has one. Some vehicles include a switch on the light, and one on the dashboard. The switch that controls the brightness of your dashboard display also can turn on the dome light, when the switch is at its highest setting. Turn the switch to the lowest setting to see if the light turns off. You have a bad control switch if adjusting the knob does not dim the dashboard display at all.

    2

    Open each door and locate the door switch. Look for a switch stuck in the open position. Manually press each switch to see if the light will deactivate. You should feel each one click. Excessive play or no clicking sound indicates a faulty switch.

    3

    Start the vehicle and allow it to run for five minutes. Turn the key off and remove it from the ignition. Open and shut each door. The light should turn off within five minutes of all doors being closed.

    4

    Trace the wiring for each switch. You will want to take the vehicle to a mechanic to have the wiring traced, as the location of the wiring will run from each door into the frame of the vehicle and terminate at the wiring harness behind the dash. The lines will be crossed at a junction point in one of the wiring harnesses for the lights, if all of the switches are fully operational.

    5

    Remove the bulb to avoid draining the battery until the wiring can be inspected by a mechanic. You can try removing the fuse, but the fuse likely controls multiple interior systems, and so you may not want to remove it.

Trouble Code P0674 on a Ford F-250

Trouble Code P0674 on a Ford F-250

The Ford F-250 comes equipped with an eight-cylinder, 6.4-liter Power Stroke diesel engine. The Power Stroke engine incorporates glow plugs to heat the cylinder chamber during cold-starting conditions. A faulty glow plug will cause a diesel engine to smoke or run rough during cold-starting conditions. The electronic control module (ECM) monitors these circuits and will record a trouble code or diagnostic code when it detects a problem in the circuit. Trouble code P0674 indicates that the ECM detects a fault in the No. 4 glow plug circuit. This fault is defined as an open circuit or short circuit in glow plug wiring or the glow plug for cylinder No. 4.

Instructions

    1

    Inspect the battery. Verify the connections and battery terminals are clean and free of corrosion, dirt and oil. Clean corrosion from the battery with baking soda, water and a wire brush. Inspect the battery cable connections on the battery, starter and chassis ground and make sure they are secure and tight. Inspect the engine harness to the ECM, glow plugs and glow plug relays.All connections should be secure and free of corrosion and damage. Repair damaged wires by temporarily wrapping black electrical tape over the exposed area.

    2

    Disconnect the wire from the top of the glow plug. Set the digital voltmeter to measure resistance. Place the positive probe on the top of the glow plug, and place the negative problem on a section of clean, bare metal on the engine block. The resistance should be between 0.6 ohms and 2 ohms. If the resistance is outside this range, replace the glow plug.

    3

    Follow the wire from the glow plug to the glow plug module. Inspect the wire. Remove the connector, and inspect the pins. Replace the wire or connector if damage or abrasion is found. Measure resistance through the glow plug signal wire. Place the positive probe on the wire end that connects to the glow plug, and place the negative probe on the glow plug relay pin. The resistance should be less than 2 ohms. Wiggle the wire during the measurement to reveal an intermittent open condition. If the resistance is greater than 2 ohms, replace the wire. Keep the positive probe on the glow plug wire end. Place the black probe on the engine block. The resistance should be greater than 10 ohms. If the resistance is less than 10 ohms, there is a short circuit to the engine block. Replace the wire.

Selasa, 23 November 2010

Chevy Truck Starting Problems

Chevy Truck Starting Problems

Chevrolet trucks may not start for a variety of reasons. When troubleshooting Chevrolets, there are a few areas where multiple problems can occur. It is best to investigate each system entirely before looking elsewhere.

Fueling

    An empty fuel tank is one of the simplest and most common problems. If the truck's instrument cluster is faulty, a driver may not have a true sense of their fuel level. Water may be present in the gas tank. The ignition system may have failing or malfunctioning components. The choke may be flooded or otherwise inoperable.

Battery

    If the battery is defective or drained, a Chevrolet truck will not start. Either or both positive and negative cables may be defective, loose or detached. Corrosion on the battery's terminals may disable the battery's ability to provide power. Corrosion often appears as a white powder and can be cleaned off with a wire brush.

Electrical

    Electrical problems can render a Chevy truck inoperable. Blown fuses are sometimes to blame and can be easily replaced. Malfunctioning relays could also pose a problem. Wet wiring can temporarily cripple a vehicle. Wiring could also be frayed or not sufficiently attached to other components.

Other Issues

    Automatic transmission pickup trucks need the gear shifter fully in park. Issues with the pinion and starter motor should be explored. Carburetors flooded with fuel will also keep a truck from starting. Often, flooded carburetors give off a strong gas smell.

Why Does My Exhaust Smell Like Gas & My Car Have a Rough Idle?

Why Does My Exhaust Smell Like Gas & My Car Have a Rough Idle?

The internal combustion engine requires a precise mixture of fuel and air to run correctly. Too much of either can result in severe running issues. When your engine idles rough and the exhaust has the smell of raw, unburned gasoline, it is suffering from a rich condition or or incomplete combustion. There are four main component failures that can result in this condition.

Fouled or Worn Out Spark Plugs

    Over time, or due to mechanical problems, the spark plugs in your vehicle wear out or foul. The actual act of a spark plug wearing out is when the electrode wear out, widening the spark plug's gap. A widened gap causes a colder spark, which can create incomplete combustion, as it cannot burn all of the fuel in the combustion chamber. This allows raw, unburned fuel to escape the exhaust.

    Fouled plugs have a foreign substance -- ash, soot, tar, oil or fuel -- coating the electrodes, causing excessive resistance and making the spark colder. This results in a rough idle and a fuel smell in the exhaust.

Failed Ignition Coil(s) or Distributor

    The ignition coil(s) and distributor supply the electrical current to the spark plugs, so that a spark can occur. If the coil(s) or distributor fails, the spark may be too cold to ignite all of the fuel in the combustion chamber. The symptom is a rough idle and a gasoline smell in from the exhaust.

Leaking Fuel Injector or Carburetor

    The fuel injectors or carburetor on your vehicle regulates fuel flow into the combustion chamber. If an injector or carburetor begins leaking fuel into the combustion chamber, it creates a rich running condition. This results in a rough idle and unburned gas making it into the exhaust, creating a gasoline smell in the exhaust.

Faulty Computer

    From the mid-1980s to present day, computers have become more prevalent in automobiles. The vehicle's computer regulates everything from the power windows to fuel and air mixture. If the vehicle's computer fails, it may not read the air-fuel mixture correctly. This may result in the computer thinking that the engine is running lean -- not enough gasoline -- and increase the flow of fuel into the combustion chamber. This will result in a rough idle and a smell of gas in the exhaust.

How to Troubleshoot a Brake Master Cylinder in a 1980 Camaro

How to Troubleshoot a Brake Master Cylinder in a 1980 Camaro

Chevrolet's version of the "pony car" earned a devout following that has endured for decades. In 1980, the second-generation Camaro retained the low-slung carriage and sporty handling characteristics that buyers appreciated. Despite other changes made to reduce emissions and enhance overall safety, the brake systems followed tried and true configurations. The master cylinder must deliver proper hydraulic pressure to effectively actuate this capable brake system.

Instructions

    1

    Check the fluid level of the master cylinder reservoir. Inspect all brake lines and hoses for leaks. Replenish the fluid if necessary, after any possible external leaks have been eliminated as a cause of fluid loss.

    2

    Start the Camaro, if it is equipped with a power brake booster. Depress the brake pedal with a steady and firm effort. Replace the master cylinder if the pedal is at first high and hard, but sinks slowly to the floor.

    3

    Inspect the rear of the master cylinder on manual brake systems at the interior side of the firewall, where the brake pedal push-rod enters the cylinder. You may have to peel back an accordion-like rubber boot that shields the cylinder and push-rod. Replace the master cylinder if any brake fluid is found in the rubber boot, or on the push-rod or floor.

    4

    Look for leaks on power brake master cylinders by inspecting the booster vacuum hose with the engine off. Disconnect the vacuum hose fitting from the booster grommet, and replace the master cylinder if any brake fluid is present inside the fitting or booster.

    5

    Test the brake pedal free play at the top of the stroke, or at the "at rest" position. Replace the master cylinder if the free play diminishes or disappears after repeated applications.

Senin, 22 November 2010

Transmission Problems in a 2002 Odyssey

The Odyssey is a minivan manufactured by Japanese auto manufacturer Honda. Through the years, the 2002 Odyssey has been known to experience various problems such as transmission issues. A few of the transmission problems in the 2002 Odyssey are a failing, disengaging and locking transmission. Familiarizing yourself with the known Odyssey transmission problems, can possibly save you more hassle in the long run. There are certain signs to look for if these problems happen in your Honda Odyssey.

Instructions

    1

    Pay attention if your Odyssey is choking, lurching or eventually stalling as you are slowing down or approaching a stop. This could be a sign of a transmission lock up. This is typically caused by heat building up between the counter shaft and secondary shaft second gears in an automatic transmission. This could eventually lead to gear tooth chipping or gear breakage. As a result, the transmission could lock up, which is dangerous and could cause your vehicle to crash.

    2

    Notice if your vehicle is vibrating when you are driving at least 35 mph. Check if there is jerky shifting while driving. If your vehicle is experiencing both of these symptoms, then the transmission could be failing, which is a common problem in 2002 Honda Odyssey vehicles.

    3

    Listen if you are driving your vehicle and the engine suddenly revs and the RPM jumps up drastically on the dial. This is a sign that the transmission may be disengaging and a symptom of a possibly serious transmission problem. This is a problem the 2002 Honda Odyssey has been known to have.

    4

    Take note if your vehicle's transmission slips or bangs while shifting. Again, this another reported problem with the Honda Odyssey and is another sign of a slipping transmission.

    5

    Bring your vehicle to a qualified mechanic if it is experiencing any of the above problems. It is important to catch the problem as soon as possible before any further damage occurs.

How to Test Turbo

Testing your vehicle's turbo system regularly for boost leaks is an important step in preventative maintenance. The various gaskets and vacuum lines of turbo system have to operate under the high temperatures generated by the engine. Over time, rubber gaskets and lines are prone to breaking down, especially on modified engines with increased boost pressure levels. Damaged gaskets and lines create boost pressure leaks, which can rob your turbocharged engine of its peak performance, as well as create various emissions system malfunctions. Any boost leaks throughout your turbo system can be easily located with a quick intake pressure test.

Instructions

    1

    Remove any plastic engine covers, exhaust heat shields, or any other engine components restricting clear access to the turbocharger inlet. The turbocharger inlet can be easily located by following the air intake tube down toward the exhaust manifold. The intake tube is mounted directly onto the turbocharger inlet.

    2

    Loosen the hose clamp securing the air intake tube to the turbocharger inlet. You need to be able to slide the intake system out of the way enough to hook an intake pressure tester onto the turbocharger inlet. On some vehicles, the intake can be simply moved aside once detached from the turbo. Other vehicles will require detaching various intake mounting brackets and/or air sensors from the air intake system. Refer to a vehicle-specific shop manual if you are unsure of the procedure required for removing the air intake.

    3

    Connect an intake pressure tester to the turbocharger's inlet by sliding the tester's rubber adapter over the turbo inlet and tightening the adapter's hose ring. At the opposite end of the pressure tester is a hand pump, as well as a pressure gauge. Pump the pressure tester to pressurize your turbo system, and monitor the pressure gauge. If your turbo system is free of boost leaks, the gauge will show a steady pressure value. If the pressure gauge value steadily drops after pressurizing the system, this means there is a boost leak somewhere throughout the turbo and intercooler system.

    4

    Listen along the various intercooler piping connections and turbo system vacuum lines while the system is pressurized via the pressure tester. A boost leak will be easily distinguishable by a loud, hissing air noise. The most common locations for boost leaks are loose intercooler piping connections and faulty turbo vacuum lines. Repair any boost leaks immediately to retain your engine's performance and reliability.

What is a VTech Engine?

The V-Tech engine is a Honda innovation that was first unveiled in the 1989 Integra, and is technically known as the VTEC.

Definition

    VTEC stands for Variable Valve Timing and Lift Electronic Control System and was developed by Ikuo Kajitani, a designer at the Honda Tochigi Research and Development Center.

Basis

    The VTEC system is a specialized system of valve timings. Each engine cylinder has at least two valves; an intake valve that allows the mixture of fuel and air to be burned to enter the cylinder, and an exhaust valve to allow the spent exhaust gas to leave the cylinder.

How VTEC Works

    VTEC engines allow the inlet and exhaust valves to be simultaneously controlled for opening and closing through specific timing and camshaft lift capabilities. This has the effect of increasing horsepower without increasing engine displacement (volume inside the cylinders swept by the piston). Using VTEC, the flagship 1989 1.6 Integra engine was boosted from 140 horsepower to 160 horsepower.

Minggu, 21 November 2010

How to Make a Jumper to Check the Radiator Fan Motor on a 1999 Aurora

How to Make a Jumper to Check the Radiator Fan Motor on a 1999 Aurora

The cooling fan or radiator fan on an engine pushes cool air through the fins of the radiator. This cool air expels excess heat and helps keep the entire engine cooler. The cooling fan on a given engine can be used to cool the radiator, air-conditioning condenser and even the transmission fluid. A radiator fan that is not functioning should be tested, along with the radiator fan relay, fuses and the coolant temperature sensor. All of these items and their wiring can attribute to a non-working radiator fan.

Instructions

    1

    Raise the hood of the vehicle, and set the hood prop if equipped. Locate the cooling fan electrical connector, which is usually attached to the fan housing or shroud. Disconnect the cooling fan electrical connector.

    2

    Cut a 6 foot length of 14- or 16-gauge wire in half. Remove the sheathing on one end of each piece of wire, about 3/4 inch down. Use side cutters or a wire splicing tool to complete this task. Unsheathe the other end of each piece of wire, about 1/8 to 3/16 inch down. Do not expose too much of the second end of the wires. Put on a pair of latex or rubber insulated gloves.

    3

    Loosen the negative battery lead with an open-end wrench, and insert the 1-inch end of a wire onto the battery post. Repeat this process for the positive battery lead, while holding the second wire completely in your hand. Do not let the exposed positive wire make contact with any portion of the vehicle, as it is all negative grounded. If the vehicle has battery leads that are also the posts (GM vehicles), use an 8 mm wrench to loosen the posts, then wrap the wire around the posts, and tighten the posts again.

    4

    Hold the piece of wire attached to the negative battery terminal in one hand. Insert that piece of wire against one of the posts on the radiator fan electrical connector plug. Touch the other post momentarily with the positive piece of wire. Do not perform this step for longer than 2 second intervals. The direct connection between the battery and fan should make the fan motor activate immediately. If the fan motor does not activate, the motor needs to be replaced.

    5

    Continue holding the positive wire piece constantly. Loosen both battery leads or posts. Remove the positive wire from the battery terminal, then remove the negative wire piece from the other terminal. Tighten the battery leads or posts to 108 inch-pounds of torque with a 3/8-inch drive torque wrench and socket.

Signs of a Poor Throttle Position Sensor

A throttle position sensor is a device in automobiles that helps the electronic control module determine the throttle's position. It helps the module manage fuel flow into the engine and regulate proper combustion. When this component fails, it affects engine performance and causes problems with acceleration and maintaining speed. If a throttle position sensor isn't replaced, it will have a damage ripple effect on other engine components.

Hesitation

    According to the automotive repair website AA1 Car, engine hesitation and stumble are "classic symptoms" of a bad throttle position sensor. The issues usually appear during acceleration and results from a fuel mixture with too much air to power combustion. This issues eventually evens out when the oxygen sensor corrects the airflow, though not enough to keep the engine from suffering persistent hesitation and stumble.

Fuel Issues

    The lack of adequate fuel caused by a malfunctioning throttle position sensor will affect fuel economy. A driver often will find himself or herself attempting to push more fuel into the engine by aggressively stepping on the gas pedal. This puts excessive fuel in the engine. Excess fuel can foul the spark plugs and other engine components.

Wide Open Throttle

    A burned-out throttle position sensor will cause a vehicle's on-board computer system to read the throttle as wide open all the time. This results in a rich fuel mixture, meaning that too much fuel is entering the engine without an appropriate ratio of air. Fuel economy is affected, and a rich fuel mixture also raises vehicle emissions, which might cause the vehicle's on-board computer to illuminate the "check engine" light.

Sabtu, 20 November 2010

What Are the Signs of a Bad Egr Valve?

What Are the Signs of a Bad Egr Valve?

The exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) valve is an automobile part used to reduce exhaust emissions. A bad EGR valve causes an increase in emissions as well as a number of problems for an engine.

Emissions

    The EGR valve allows a small amount of exhaust gas to enter the air intake when needed to reduce the combustion temperature in the engine. Without this cooling effect, the engine runs hot which increases exhaust emissions. These emissions increase pollution and result in the vehicle failing emissions testing.

Detonation

    With a bad EGR valve, the combustion temperatures rises which can cause detonation. Detonation, often referred to as spark knock, is caused by fuel burning in the cylinders due to heat and not ignition spark. Detonation causes the fuel to be burned prematurely which makes the engine inefficient, resulting in decreased gas mileage.

Other Problems

    A bad EGR valve creates vacuum problems for the engine. The engine uses vacuum to adjust air intake and fuel injection. Vacuum problems may make an engine difficult to start and causes the engine to not idle properly. The engine may also stall, hesitate or show other performance problems while driving.

How to Determine If Your Fuel Pump Is Bad

How to Determine If Your Fuel Pump Is Bad

A bad fuel pump can cause major problems with your car or truck. The fuel pump's job is to draw fuel out of the fuel tank and pump it through the fuel lines into the engine. Without fuel, your vehicle cannot run, so a vehicle with a malfunctioning fuel pump is likely to leave you without transportation until you are able to have it repaired. There are a number of different factors that can lead to fuel pump failure in a vehicle.

Instructions

    1

    Get in the car and turn the key to the "On" position without actually starting it. Have a friend with good hearing stand next to the gas cap and listen for an electrical whining noise from the gas tank area. The whine is the fuel pump coming on when you turn the key on. If you can hear the sound, then your fuel pump is turning on. If you can not hear anything, then there is a chance your fuel pump is not coming on at all.

    2

    Start the car. Pay special attention if the car struggles to start, starts and immediately stalls out or will not start at all. If the problem is the fuel pump, the engine should still try to start but sound like the car is out of gas.

    If the car does nothing when you turn the key, the problem is probably not the fuel pump.

    3

    Check to make sure your vehicle has gasoline. Add some gasoline from a small portable gas tank, if necessary. Sometimes a vehicle's gas gauge will stop working and the vehicle will run out of gas without anyone realizing it was low because the fuel gauge is still showing fuel.

    If you know you recently added gasoline, be aware that bad gas can cause fuel pump problems.

    4

    Perform a fuel pump pressure test. You will need a pressure gauge and a service manual for your specific vehicle in order to do this. Every vehicle is different and has different pressure requirements and testing places. If your vehicle does not have good fuel pressure, it will experience problems. A lack of pressure can mean a non-working fuel pump.

    5

    Perform a fuel volume test to measure the amount of fuel your pump is delivering to your vehicle. If the fuel pump is not delivering enough fuel, the vehicle will run poorly or may not run at all. A fuel volume test can be done by inserting a fuel flow gauge into the vehicle's fuel supply lines.

    6

    Take your vehicle to a mechanic and have it formally tested or diagnosed. Even if the fuel pump does not seem to be working, the fuel pump is electric and can be affected by wiring problems or a loss of electrical power to the system.

What Happens When Ball Bearings Go in an Auto?

What Happens When Ball Bearings Go in an Auto?

Modern internal-combustion automobile engines use a variety of different bearings. Wherever there are two dissimilar surfaces rubbing or rotating together, they are protected by a bearing. Major internal components, such as crankshafts and camshafts, do not use ball bearings, as these would not survive the pressures and conditions present inside the engine. These components use a type of solid, friction bearing. Many of the external components, however, do use ball bearings.

Noise

    A bearing that is failing, or is about to fail, often will make noise. Some bearings make a "clunking" noise, and others "squeal." Noisy bearings also can indicate a lack of lubrication.

Increased Oil Contaminants

    Bearings can slowly disintegrate. This allows pieces of the bearing material to circulate in the engine oil. Because bearing components are very hard, they can quickly do damage to other components, through increased wear.

Vibration

    When a bearing becomes worn or damaged, it often becomes loose internally. This increases the movement of whatever the bearing is attached to. The added movement of the rotating component sets up a vibration, because it is no longer balanced properly.

Component Failure

    When a bearing is damaged to the point at which it locks up, or "freezes," its corresponding component will fail. This usually results in the locking up of the component. This can destroy other items that are attached to the component, such as drive belts and mounting brackets.

Ford Expedition 4-Wheel Drive Problems

Ford Expedition 4-Wheel Drive Problems

The Ford Expedition 4-Wheel Drive model has had several recalls and technical service bulletins (TSBs) issued for problems such as tire tread defects and problems with the stability/traction control indicator. These Expedition problems affect the handling and control of this model, creating potential accident situations.

Tire Tread Defect

    The 2006 Ford Expedition 4WD had a recall for defective tires. More than 10,000 Fords, including the Expedition, were recalled by the manufacturer for damaged centerline tread that occurred during production of the factory tires. This tire defect can cause the Expedition's tires to corrode and eventually separate during normal operating conditions. The corrosion of the tires is caused by the defect, as well as moisture entering and remaining inside the tires. Owners of affected models can take their Expeditions to their local dealerships to have their tires replaced.

Steering and Stability Problems

    The 4WD Ford Expedition has several TSBs published by the manufacturer for problems that occur with the steering and stability of the SUV. Defects in the hydraulic power hoses and connections sometimes make steering and handling difficult. When this occurs, the stability/traction indicator lights up on the Expedition's dashboard to inform the driver that there is a problem with the steering and stability system. However, one TSB reports that this warning light sometimes illuminates when there is no problem with the control of the vehicle. Expedition owners should take their Fords in for repairs if this warning indicator engages.

ABS Problems

    The anti-lock braking system (ABS) on the Ford Expedition 4WD vehicle has been recalled on more than 10,000 SUVs. The ABS control modules were manufactured with additional check balls that reduce the flow of brake fluid into the ABS brakes. This problem impairs the braking capability of the vehicle. When this braking problem occurs, the driver cannot stop the SUV, resulting in a potential accident situation. An Expedition subject to this recall should to be taken to the nearest dealership if the ABS warning light illuminates, in order to determine whether this ABS manufacturing defect is the problem.

Jumat, 19 November 2010

My Car Is Vibrating When I Get Past 45 After a Snowstorm

My Car Is Vibrating When I Get Past 45 After a Snowstorm

As heavy as the average car is, you wouldn't think that a few extra ounces of mass here or there would make that much of a difference in performance -- but it does. Mud, snow and ice in the wheel rims can easily throw them off balance, which is something that always bears consideration after a snowstorm.

Instructions

    1

    Check the insides of your wheels. While you're going down the road, centrifugal force will spin snow and ice out to the inside of the rim, making the wheel heavier but essentially keeping it in balance. When you park the car, residual heat from the brakes will melt the snow, causing it to pool in the rim and re-freeze in the following hours. Upon checking the wheel, you're likely to find a thick chunk of ice where the water pooled.

    2

    Drive the car for about 2,000 feet with your left foot applying light-to-medium brake pressure and your right foot heavy enough on the throttle to maintain at least 25 to 30 mph. The brakes will immediately begin to send heat coursing through the wheel rim, quickly melting the ice back into a liquid state. Periodically ride your brakes with light pressure for 1,000 feet or so to keep some heat in them.

    3

    Lightly ride the brakes for about 1,000 feet when you get about 2,000 feet from your destination. Melting the ice and snow 1,000 feet or so before you stop will give the accumulated snow-water time to sling away from the wheel, thus preventing ice buildup the next time you drive the car.

Causes for a 1995 Camry to Overheat

There are a number of problems that can cause a car to overheat. Overheating can severely damage a 1995 Toyota Camry's motor and cost hundreds of dollars to repair if not handled properly. Never drive a Camry when it is overheating. If your Camry is overheating, the problem needs to be fixed right away.

Radiator

    The radiator is a primary part of your Camry's cooling system. It holds the Camry's coolant, which flows through the radiator and into the motor to keep the car from overheating. In the event that the radiator becomes clogged, adequate amounts of coolant will not be circulated through the car's engine and the car will overheat.

Water Pump

    The water pump is the part of your Camry's cooling system that is responsible for pumping the coolant through the motor. If the water pump begins to leak or if the impeller freezes up or comes loose, the water pump ceases working and the Camry's motor does not get the coolant it needs and it overheats.

Thermostat

    The thermostat controls when the water is released into the engine by opening at a pre-set temperature. When the coolant has reached sufficient temperature, the thermostat opens and allows the coolant into the engine. When a thermostat malfunctions, it does not open to allow engine cooling. When the thermostat gets stuck in place or stops working, the Camry's engine will not receive the coolant it needs to throw off heat and will overheat

Fan

    If a Camry's fan stops working, the car will probably overheat fairly quickly. The fan keeps cool air running over the motor when the vehicle is going at slow speeds or idling. You will notice the car overheating more often at slow speeds than fast, if the problem is the fan.

Head Gasket

    A blown or leaking head gasket causes a Camry to overheat. When this happens, your coolant leaks into your engine and often mixes with the oil. Replace the whole head gasket if this happens, which may require replacement of other parts of the engine as well, depending on how long the leak has been going on and how much damage has been done by it.

Kamis, 18 November 2010

Symptoms of a Bad Oxygen Sensor in a Pontiac Bonneville

Symptoms of a Bad Oxygen Sensor in a Pontiac Bonneville

The oxygen sensor in your Pontiac Bonneville monitors the exhaust gases produced by the engine and adjusts the car's fuel based on the data. This is a real time type of adjustment, meaning that the sensor is constantly measuring and making adjustments while the car is running. Failure of the part can cause several different symptoms that may lead the driver to suspect a faulty sensor.

Performance Issues

    Among the symptoms of a faulty oxygen sensor is a group of problems that can best be described as "performance issues." Poor pick up, stalling or hesitation can be indicative of a bad oxygen sensor in a Pontiac Bonneville. Starting problems are also a good sign of such an issue. Of course, any of these problems can be caused by other components in your car, so it's not a definitive diagnosis.

Warning Lights

    Pontiac Bonnevilles manufactured after 1996 are equipped with an oxygen sensor light. If that light is illuminated, the sensor has most likely failed. Bonnevilles not equipped with this feature have other lights which may indicate an oxygen sensor failure, such as the "Service Engine Soon" or "Check Engine" lights.

Other Problems

    A faulty oxygen sensor in a Pontiac Bonneville can cause the car to fail an emissions test. It can also create a "rotten egg" smell. Another symptom is decreased fuel economy, which is typically the first sign of trouble with the oxygen sensor.

Rabu, 17 November 2010

Car Problems With Sub Zero Temps

Car Problems With Sub Zero Temps

The Arctic Circle may not be getting any closer to most of the planet, but try telling that to the people who must endure northernmost climes on a regular basis. For them, the words "bone-chilling cold" fall far short of describing the metal-shattering extremes of mid-winter. While few autos on Earth can bear the brunt of all that mother nature can dish out, it's best to know what will happen to the typical auto during those deepest of deep freezes.

The Nature of Hot and Cold

    Absolute zero: It's more than just negative 459.6 degrees F. It's the black hole of thermodynamics, a sort of bizarro world where atomic movement ceases, metals pass electricity with infinite efficiency, and frozen gases become quantum super fluids. To simplify, think back on Newton's Laws of Inertia; objects in motion will tend to stay in motion, while stationary objects will resist motion. If you reduce movement at an atomic scale, then any kinetic energy that impacts the cold object will unevenly transfer its energy to the object; atoms near the impact will try to move to absorb the energy but will smack into the stationary ones. The result is a loss of atomic cohesion and shattering of the object.

Rubber and Synthetic Rubber

    Rubbers materials are some of the first to suffer in the intense cold. By definition, they depend on molecular flexibility and elasticity to do their jobs. They do this by cross-linking long chains of "coiled" molecules into a matrix called a polymer. Think of it as a cargo net made out of a bunch of very long Slinky toys instead of rope. Once atomic movement slows down, those coils will resist uncoiling and snapping back into place. Rubber will start to grow progressively harder until about negative 20 degrees, when it may retain elasticity comparable to PVC plastic. Prolonged exposure to temperatures like these will break enough of the polymer chains to permanently damage the rubber. Around negative 60, rubber has lost almost all of its flexibility and is one sharp impact away from cracking or shattering.

Metal

    Metal's crystalline structure causes it to react to extreme cold a bit differently than rubber. Spring-steel components will progressively lose their springiness down to a temperature determined by the specific alloy composition, generally becoming brittle enough to snap at somewhere near negative 60 degrees. Harder structural and bolt steels, which by nature are already more brittle than spring steels, will tend to snap at higher temperatures. Frame cracking is a well-known problem among heavy haulers that run the ice roads of Canada and Alaska, where temperatures may not see anything higher than negative 10 for months. Metal also contracts when it gets cold, which increases clearances between components and can cause fasteners to literally fall out of their holes. Leaking seals and coolant lines, excess bearing clearances and breakage between gears made of different metals are just a few of the many other resulting problems.

Fluids

    Russia's winter may make it an unpleasant place to be most of the time, but it's also saved the country on more than one occasion. The arctic nation's brutal winter all but froze Hitler's mechanized invasion in its tracks -- literally. German crews wrote much about having to build nightly fires beneath their vehicles' engines to keep the oil from freezing, which would have begun around 0 degrees. Typical automotive antifreeze is good to about negative 40 before it freezes solid, but that probably won't matter below about negative 20 anyway. Fuel's vaporization rate and volatility decrease with temperature, which is why you can smell a gas station two blocks away in the summer. At sub-zero temperatures approaching minus 20, fuel may lose so much of its volatility that you might as well run water through the motor for all the good it'll do.

Batteries

    Batteries are finicky things, like little ecosystems themselves. They're engineered to strike a balance between going completely inactive and exploding, and those extremes are almost entirely dependent on the battery's temperature. Average battery amperage capacity and output drops by about 20 percent at 32 degrees, and it drops to about 50 percent at between zero and negative 20. By negative 40, the battery is effectively dead or likely incapable of overcoming the resistance of the syrup-like oil in your crankcase.

Tire Pressure

    Keep a close eye on your tire pressures if you do manage to get the car started; air, like metal, contracts as it cools. The rule of thumb is a 1 psi drop for every 10 degrees. So, if you put 25 pounds in the tire in your 80-degree garage, pressure will likely drop to about 15 psi at negative 20 degrees.

What Are the Causes of Steering Rack Failure?

What Are the Causes of Steering Rack Failure?

The steering wheel -- also known as the "rack and pinion" -- is made up of several parts and components that allow the driver to control the direction of the entire vehicle. Problems within the steering column can cause significant failures, from loose to hard steering. Although the symptoms are relatively easy to spot, the cause of steering column problems may be due to a variety of issues.

Inner Tie Rod Sockets

    One of the key components of a steering column is the inner tie rod sockets. If these sockets become worn, several different symptoms can result requiring immediate replacement. The steering wheel may feel "loose" when turning it. The steering wheel may also rotate, either left or right, by itself unless the driver holds it in place. Symptoms of inner tie rod socket problems can also be attributed to completely unrelated issues, such as tire misalignment, so it is important to diagnose the issue correctly.

Over-torquing and Binding

    Over-torquing can be another issue with regard to both the inner and outer tie rod sockets within the rack and pinion. The usual symptoms of over-torquing are hard steering exhibited when the steering wheel is difficult to turn in any direction. Alternatively, corroded inner tie rod sockets can result in this same phenomenon as the corroded sockets can cause the steering wheel to stick in one place. Binding issues on the strut plates within the steering column can also result in problems with turning the steering wheel.

Yoke Adjustment

    Rack and steering columns often need a yoke adjustment to ensure they function properly. Vehicles in need of a yoke adjustment can experience steering failure or produce unusual noises within the column. As with most other symptoms, these noises can also occur with other rack and pinion issues, such as worn inner tie rod sockets.

Problems With 2005 Toyota 4Runner Stability Control

The 2005 Toyota 4Runner has recalls and technical service bulletins (TSB) about stability control problems. The electronic stability control in the 4Runner assists the driver in controlling the steering, brakes and engine power of the Toyota. The stability control can be affected by problems with the tires, brakes or steering mechanism which engages the stability control when this electronic device is not required.

Steering Flutter

    The manufacturer has published a TSB on the 2005 Toyota 4Runner about steering flutter during driving at highway speeds. The electronic stability control is informing the 4Runner there is a steering control problem, which creates a flutter or vibration in the steering wheel once the Toyota reaches highway speeds. The stability control is telling the brakes and steering wheel the 4Runner is not stable and is either pulling to one side or skidding to one side. The electronic stability control needs to be reprogrammed in order to repair this misinformation problem with the 4Runner.

Tire Pressure Regulating System

    The tire pressure monitoring and regulating system is creating a stability control problem in the 2005 4Runner. The manufacturer has published a minimum of five different TSBs concerning this tire pressure monitoring and regulating system defect. The monitoring device is informing the electronic stability control in the vehicle that there is a steering control problem. One tire is losing tire pressure, which engages the warning signal. The stability control is compensating for this problem when there actually is no tire pressure problem. Once the stability control attempts to correct the steering of the 4Runner, the operator can lose control of the SUV. The monitoring system needs to be replaced or reprogrammed to prevent the stability control from engaging on the 4Runner.

Tire and Rim Recall

    Two recalls are reported on the 2005 4Runner concerning the wrong size tire and rims installed on the SUV. More than 400,000 Toyota 4Runners were assembled with the wrong size tires and rims, causing the tires and rims to be easily overloaded. Once this overload occurs on one the tires and rims, the stability control is informed the 4Runner is experiencing a steering problem. The stability control attempts to correct this steering problem by applying the brakes and adjusting the direction of the steering wheel. The 4Runner is actually not having a steering problem that requires the assistance of the stability control; this system correction then makes the vehicle difficult to steer. Owners need to take the 4Runner to the dealership to ensure the proper capacity labels are installed on the SUV as well as the correct rims and tires.

Problems With the Throttle Body on the Chevy 8.1 L V8

Problems With the Throttle Body on the Chevy 8.1 L V8

The Chevrolet 8.1-L V8 engine has reports of throttle body problems affecting the operation of the engine. The throttle body acts as carburetor in the 8.1-L V8, which controls the amount of air allowed into the engine body. The amount of air alters the amount of fuel allowed into the cylinders, affecting the amount of power the engine provides.

Carbon Buildup

    The Chevy 8.1-L V8 engine has a problem with carbon building up in the throttle body. This carbon problem makes the throttle body valve stick in place. This allows too much air into the engine cylinders, causing the engine to misfire. Once more air is permitted into the engine, more fuel is allowed to enter the cylinder heads. More fuel gives the engine more power when this power is not required.

Electronic Throttle Control

    The electronic throttle control in the Chevy 8.1-L V8 engine can lose the signal between the accelerator pedal and throttle body. The throttle control normally sends a signal from the gas pedal and into the throttle body, telling it how much power is required. Once this signal is interrupted, the throttle body does not work correctly. The electronic throttle control needs to be replaced once this problem occurs.

Vacuum Leak

    A hose runs on both ends of the throttle body of a Chevy 8.1-L V8 engine. These hoses are sealed with connections that can leak, causing a vacuum leak. Once the hoses begin to leak, air is released into the engine compartment and not into the engine. This loss of air causes the 8.1-L V8 engine to miss or stall.

Spindle Body Breaks

    The throttle body valve opens and closes on a Chevy 8.1L V8 engine and works on a spindle. When this spindle body is breaking, it prevents the throttle body valve from opening and allowing more air into the engine. Once air is prevented from entering the engine, less gasoline is allowed into the cylinders. Less fuel means the engine has less power than it requires at times.

How to Troubleshoot the Passenger Side Window on a 2000 Dodge Grand Caravan

Chrysler's 2000 Dodge Caravan minivan can include electrically operated windows and also rear vent windows. Rear vent windows ca be manually operated with a lever or electrically operated from switches on the driver's door trim panel. The two front windows can be operated from the driver's door trim panel, and the passenger window can be operated from the passenger seat too. Problems with the windows can include operation, and buffeting. Correct these kinds of problems with troubleshooting.

Instructions

    1

    Turn the ignition switch to the "Accessory" position if the passenger side window won't open or close. The "Accessory" position is the second position clockwise from "Off." Try the window again.

    2

    Press the window switch and hold it to open and close the passenger window, because unlike the driver's side window, there isn't an Auto-Down feature--where you press the window switch passed its detent and let it go, and the window travels down automatically. The passenger side doesn't have it.

    3

    Don't open any doors if you want to take advantage of the active passenger side window switch after the ignition has been turned to "Off," or the key removed. The switches for the passenger side window will stay active for 45 seconds after the ignition is turned off, but only if doors aren't opened.

    4

    Open the passenger side window if you experience wind buffeting. Wind buffeting can occur if the rear passengers have their windows open, but front windows are closed. Opening the passenger window may correct this, as may adjusting the sunroof opening size.

How to Identify a Failing Harmonic Balancer

How to Identify a Failing Harmonic Balancer

The harmonic balancer has three parts. The inner part is made of molded steel with a hub that bolts onto the crankshaft. The harmonic balancer has three threaded 3/8-inch holes that are used to pull the balancer off the crankshaft. A rubber insulator separates the third part from the hub. The last part, the fan belt, goes around the outer ring. Without the harmonic balancer, the engine, pistons, rods, and anything else that attaches to the crankshaft would vibrate. The harmonic balancer keeps this vibration out of the engine.

Instructions

    1
    Engine harmonic balancer
    Engine harmonic balancer

    Start your engine and check the harmonic balancer to see if it wobbles while the engine is running. Take a flashlight and shine it directly onto the balancer to see if it goes in and out while rotating. If it wobbles, the harmonic balancer is bad. Turn off the ignition.

    2

    Remove the fan belt then grab hold of the outer ring on the harmonic balancer and try to move the ring in or out. If the ring moves in and out, the harmonic balancer is bad.

    3

    Inspect the rubber insulator between the inner hub and the outer ring. If the insulator is cracked, showing signs of wear or is missing, the harmonic balancer needs to be replaced.

How to Troubleshoot a Chevy Silverado Transmission

Troubleshooting the transmission in your Chevy Silverado may seem like a daunting task to someone who has never done it before, but there a several common things you can check for before you need to take the vehicle to a mechanic. By troubleshooting the transmission yourself, you may find that the problem can be fixed by yourself and could save you a lot of money in mechanics fees. If you are unable to diagnose the problem, you will need to have it looked at by a certified automotive repair technician.

Instructions

    1

    Crank the engine and allow it to run until the temperature gauge needle is resting in the center of the gauge.

    2

    Open the hood of the vehicle and remove the transmission dipstick. The dipstick is located at the rear of the engine.

    3

    Clean the transmission fluid from the dipstick and re-insert it into the filler neck. Push it all the way back down.

    4

    Remove the dipstick again and check the transmission fluid level. The level should be between the two marks on the end of the dipstick. Put more fluid into the vehicle, if needed.

    5

    Enter the vehicle and put the transmission in gear. If there is a clunking sound as you do this, the transmission mounts may have failed.

    6

    Drive the Silverado for a short time. If the transmission slips out of gear while driving, the clutch or torque converter may have failed and it will need to be taken to a qualified automotive mechanic.

How to Translate the P6045 Code in a 2001 Dodge Dakota

Here's an interesting problem: how do you interpret a diagnostic trouble code that doesn't exist? The first numeric digit of a DTC indicates whether it's a generic (indicated by a zero) or a manufacturer-specific (indicated by a one, two or three) code. If you're doing the math, then you've probably noticed that the coding system doesn't go up to six -- so, code P6045 doesn't exist. It may be time to backtrack, double-check and do some homework on your scanner.

Instructions

    1

    Check that you haven't gotten any of your numbers backward, and that the LCD screen on your scanner isn't damaged. This is the least likely option, since transposing the first two numbers gives you code P0645 -- which doesn't apply to this truck either. A damaged LCD screen might cause a zero to look like a six, but that's unlikely here, too; code P0045 indicates a turbocharger problem, and the 2001 Dakota didn't come with any turbocharged engines. But it can't hurt to be sure.

    2

    Research your scanner. The government originally mandated OBD-II as a means to reduce its costs when doing emissions checks; the goal was to create a generic coding language readable by any emissions computer. These are the "P0" codes, and any OBD-II scanner will read them. Most generic scanners won't read all of the "P1", "P2" and "P3" codes, and are instead programmed to spit out a nonsense code that will send you back to the dealer. This "P6" code may be just such a case.

    3

    Examine your control computer. Engine control computers are just like any other computer; they can crash or be physically damaged. Throwing out a nonsense code may be the computer's white flag -- it's the computer saying "I'm fried. Replace me." That such nonsense codes are generally indicative of a malfunctioning RAM module is academic; a dead computer is a dead computer. The Dakota doesn't specifically have any technical service bulletins or recalls associated with computer problems, but little things do happen over the course of a decade or more.

1994 Chevrolet C1500 Won't Start

1994 Chevrolet C1500 Won't Start

The 1994 Chevy C1500 Silverado was most commonly equipped with either the 4.3-liter V-6 or the more powerful 5.7-liter V-8. The truck has a record of proven reliability, and is seldom a victim of serious mechanical problems. There are a few simple tests to determine why your 1994 C1500 won't start. These can be performed by a determined do-it-yourselfer with a few simple tools.

Instructions

    1

    Test for proper voltage at the battery, and with the battery under load. Battery voltage should be between 12 and 13.5 volts at the battery. While still holding the multimeter leads to the terminals, have an assistant attempt to crank the motor. The voltage should not drop below 9 volts. If it does, the battery needs to be charged or replaced. Even if the battery still turns the vehicle over, anything below the 9-volt value will not activate the control module or the fuel injector.

    2

    Check that the fuel gauge is functioning, and there is actually fuel in the tank. Test fuel pressure. With the key in the "Off" position, attach the fuel pressure gauge to the fitting on the fuel line. Attempt to start the truck, and take the reading from the gauge. It should be between 9 and 13 psi. If it is not, check the fuel filter. Also check power to the fuel pump, and ensure that the fuel pump relay is working. If these steps do not work, the fuel pump will need to be replaced.

    3

    Check for spark. Remove the number one spark plug wire, and install an inline spark tester. Have an assistant attempt to crank the motor, and watch for spark. There should be a hot white spark in the window of the spark tester. If there is not, first remove the control module, found under the distributor cap, and have it tested by a local auto parts store. This is the most common cause for no spark on a Chevy C1500. If the module tests good, remove the coil from the top of the distributor cap, and have it tested as well. Check all grounds, as a bad ground will also cause no spark.

    4

    Check the timing. While the distributor cap is removed, have an assistant crank the motor, and ensure that the distributor rotor is turning. If it is not, the distributor shaft or gear is damaged, and the distributor will need to be replaced. Assemble the distributor, and with an inductive timing light, test the timing. With the clamp around the number one spark plug wire, aim the timing light at the timing tab just above the harmonic balancer. The timing light should illuminate the timing marks when it flashes. If it does not, see your service manual or the emissions sticker under the hood of your truck to determine timing specifications and adjustment.

    5

    Check for adequate compression. If your Chevy will still not start, use a spark plug wrench to pull the number one spark plug, and install the compression tester adapter. Crank the engine for a five seconds, and then check the reading. It should be between 90 and 110 psi. Check all the other cylinders as well, reinstalling each plug before testing the next cylinder. Write all of the results down. The cylinder reading should all fall within specification, and should not vary by more than 5 percent. If they do, there are internal engine problems. Consult a professional for proper diagnosis and repair options.

Selasa, 16 November 2010

Signs & Symptoms of Transmission Problems

Signs & Symptoms of Transmission Problems

The transmission is one of the most important parts of your vehicle. Without a good transmission, your car will not operate at all, and you will be left with a large, immobile piece of metal yard art. There are several things you may notice if your transmission is beginning to have problems. If you notice your car having transmission issues, you should take it to a repair shop immediately to avoid further damage.

Not Engaing Properly

    If you put your car in gear and it does not go right away, there is a good chance that your car is having transmission problems. Your car should shift from gear to gear quickly and easily with minimal resistance. If your engine is revving to a high rpm and not shifting into another gear, your transmission may need to be serviced.

Noises

    If you put your car in gear and a moment later it shifts with a clunk that makes the whole car shake, your transmission needs to be serviced or repaired. Your transmission should not be making any clunking, grinding or whining noises while you are driving your car or shifting. If you can hear your transmission, chances are you have a problem.

Fluid Problems

    Check your car's transmission fluid. If the fluid is low, nonexistent or has turned a strange color, your transmission is having some sort of problem. Transmission fluid leaks can cause your transmission to overheat and burn up. The color of your transmission fluid should be a translucent dark pink or red. If it is brown, milky or smells burnt, you need to have your transmission looked at by a professional.

Senin, 15 November 2010

How to Troubleshoot Ford Windstar Heater Problems

How to Troubleshoot Ford Windstar Heater Problems

Diagnosing a problem with your vehicle's heater is a matter of eliminating things that could be wrong. The Ford Windstar models from 1995 to 2001 are equipped with SRS airbags. The negative battery cable should be disconnected first and then the positive cable to avoid accidentally discharging the air bags when working around the dashboard, which you'll be doing when troubleshooting the heater.

Instructions

    1

    Check the fuses and all the connections in the heater blower motor circuit. Loose and corroded wires will cause a malfunction.

    2

    Examine the ground wire connections. One of the ground wires is behind the left kick panel on the left of the brake pedal, the other is below the glove box on the right side of the dashboard.

    3

    Examine the battery and make sure it is fully charged. A weak battery will not put out enough power to run the heater blower motor.

    4

    Test the heater settings. Turn on the ignition switch and put the heater control on "floor" or "vent" and put the blower speed to "high". Check the heater vents to see if the air is actually moving.

    5

    Move the blower speed to the other positions and check for air movement on each setting. If the blower motor does not operate on any of the control settings the blower motor relay, the blower motor may be faulty or the switch or wiring could be bad. If the blower motor works on the high setting but not on some of the other settings then the blower resistor or wiring may need to be replaced.