Kamis, 31 Maret 2011

What Causes PowerStroke Idle Knock?

What Causes PowerStroke Idle Knock?

The PowerStroke engine was introduced in 1994 by the Ford Motor Company. International Truck and Engine Corp. developed the engine to make the Ford trucks more versatile. The manufacturer and automobile company wanted a powerful truck that would be able to work hard under loads and still be a daily driver. Over time, the PowerStroke developed some problems, which included an excessive knocking noise during idle.

Low Oil

    A technical service bulletin (TSB) was published on the 2000 Ford Excursion truck in October 2003 about an idle knock occurring on the 7.3L PowerStroke engine. The diesel engine has a combustion knocking noise as a common part of its operation, but the TSB noted the occurrence of above-average knocking noises. After investigation by local maintenance departments, technicians discovered that the engine was being operated at low oil levels, causing the engine components to operate with less lubrication. The lack of lubrication caused the engine to make a knocking noise when idling that was louder than normal.

Head Bolts

    The PowerStroke engine has head bolts that secure the cylinder heads to the engine. These head bolts have been known to stretch under pressure. The stretching causes the PowerStroke head to loosen, which causes the engine to begin knocking at idle, as well as under normal operation. The type of head bolts installed on these engines is considered the weakest link on the PowerStroke engine, according to International Power Stroke. The information website states the head bolt issue is one of the most common problems found in the 6.0L PowerStroke engine.

Soot and Oil

    Another cause of high idle knock on the PowerStroke engine is the buildup of soot and oil in the Exhaust Gas Recirculation (EGR) assembly. The buildup causes the valves to clog and fail over time. As the soot and oil build up in the EGR valve, the turbocharger over-boosts. The valves begin to build up soot quickly, making the engine knock during idling. Fuel efficiency is also reduced because of low combustion temperature when the PowerStroke idles. The combination of soot buildup, low combustion temperature and EGR valve clogging causes a knocking noise to develop during idle.

Cylinder Head Gasket

    One TSB published by the manufacturer of the PowerStroke engine reports that the cylinder head gasket is developing a premature leak. Once oil begins to leak out of the cylinder head, the engine begins to lose oil rapidly. As noted earlier, running the PowerStroke engine with low oil causes a knocking noise to develop during idle and under normal driving conditions. A PowerStroke owner must take the vehicle into a qualified automotive technician and have the cylinder head gasket replaced with a new service-only gasket once the leak develops. No recall had been announced on this problem at the time of publication.

How to Troubleshoot the Diagnostics on a 1999 Ford Windstar

How to Troubleshoot the Diagnostics on a 1999 Ford Windstar

The 1999 Ford Windstar is a mid-size minivan. It gets an estimated 17 to 21 miles per gallon on the highway and has a maximum horsepower of 4900 rpms. The trouble codes for it begin with a "P," which stands for "Powertrain," and have a series of numbers, each one indicating trouble in a different system in the engine. For instance, Code P1788 means "transmission system problems," indicating a problem with the transmission. Therefore, you troubleshoot the transmission in an effort to clear the problem and erase the trouble code.

Instructions

    1

    Connect an OBD-II scan device to the tester port under the dash, near the steering column. The tester port, also called an Assembly Line Diagnostic Link (ALDL), is a 12-to-16-port electrical device used to extract trouble codes from the engine's computer.

    2

    Turn the ignition key "On" but don't start the engine. Answer the prompts on the scanner screen, entering information such as the year, make and model of your Windstar.

    3

    Select the option to pull the trouble codes. Write down the codes as they appear and look up their meanings online or in your service manual. The link in the Resource section is a list of OBD-II Ford trouble codes.

    4

    Address the suspected defective components based on the meanings of the codes.

How to Test for a Weak Ignition Coil

Ignition coils deliver the electrical charge needed to fire a spark plug. Older cars have a single coil that delivers the electricity to a distributor, which then sends the charge to the spark plugs. In newer engines, the ignition control module has replaced the traditional distributor and single ignition coil for delivering electricity to spark plugs. The ignition control module now sends energy directly to individual ignition coils, which then send the electricity to the spark plugs. Weak ignition coils cause a host of problems for an engine, including rough idling, misfiring and hesitation while accelerating.

Instructions

Single Ignition Coil

    1

    Disconnect the cable from the negative battery terminal.

    2

    Mark and disconnect the coil wires.

    3

    Check the coil's primary resistance. Connect the leads of the ohmmeter to the positive and negative terminals on the coil. Every vehicle has its own specifications for correct primary resistance. Consult your vehicle's service manual for this information.

    4

    Check the coil's secondary resistance. Connect one of the ohmmeter leads to one of the terminals on the coil. Connect the other lead to the large, center high-tension terminal. Consult your vehicle's service manual for the correct resistance.

    5

    Replace the coil as necessary.

Multiple Ignition Coils

    6

    Remove the ignition coil rail or coil pack assembly.

    7

    Test each coil's primary resistance. Touch the ohmmeter leads to the primary terminals. Consult your vehicle's service manual for the proper primary resistance values.

    8

    Test each coil's secondary resistance. Touch the ohmmeter leads to one of the primary terminals and the high-tension secondary terminal. Your vehicle's service manual will have the correct resistance values.

    9

    Diagnose ignition coil issues by using a diagnostic scan tool, which can be done on newer vehicles. Connect the tool to the vehicle's diagnostic port. Compare any codes against the codes in your vehicle's service manual.

    10

    Replace the coil rail or coil pack if necessary.

What Can Cause Occasional Hesitation in a 2002 Ford Taurus?

What Can Cause Occasional Hesitation in a 2002 Ford Taurus?

The 2002 Ford Taurus is usually equipped with a 3.0L 12-valve V6 engine, with about 2 percent of the model year equipped with a 24-valve 3.0L V6 power plant. A stuttering problem with either engine might have one cause, or several. Air, fuel, spark, proper cylinder pressure and correct engine timing are needed to make the Taurus V6 run smoothly. A transmission issue might also cause a lurching motion.

Air-Fuel Mixture

    Air flow reduced by a dirty air filter might cause an overly rich mixture of fuel, leading to poor performance and possible stutters. Clogged fuel injectors or other obstruction in the fuel flow will show up as some loss in performance, and this may include a stuttering or bucking sensation.

Ignition System

    The spark must be of proper intensity and occur at the correct time during each engine revolution. A weak coil will lead to low spark voltage and cause stutters. Worn-out spark plugs, an electrical short in the ignition system and faulty engine sensors can all create intermittent engine performance or cause the spark to fire at the wrong time.

Engine Mechanical Components

    Correct engine operation may falter as the engine ages, and parts become loose and worn. An out-of-sync camshaft or bent valve will cause the engine to run poorly. Worn valves and rings can allow spark plugs to become oil fouled, which will cause the engine to miss. A leaky exhaust valve might lead to backfiring, which could damage the engine and possibly start an engine fire.

Engine Sensors

    Engine sensors on the Taurus monitor air, fuel, spark, engine timing and emissions. A sensor malfunction often causes unpredictable results, including stuttering.

Transmission

    Early signs of transmission failure may imitate engine stuttering because the transmission slips in and out of gear, creating power surges. Stuttering problems can be difficult to diagnose and might require repair by an experienced mechanic.

Rabu, 30 Maret 2011

How to Know If Your Bearings Are Rusted

How to Know If Your Bearings Are Rusted

There are fewer parts on the vehicle exposed to greater wear than the ball bearings (also known as wheel bearings) inside your wheel base. Ball bearings are small steel balls allowing your wheels to turn freely. Over time, exposure to natural elements like water, dirt and other particles will cause rust and corrosion of the bearings. Rusting bearings can cause major problems with the operating condition of your vehicle's wheel base. However, a potential problem can be easily identified.

Instructions

    1

    Drive your vehicle down a quiet street. Listen for a 'grinding', 'humming' or 'growling' sound when you turn your wheel. Also, look for a wobbly wheel as you drive.

    2

    Park your car in a safe location where you can work for a few minutes.

    3

    Place the car jack near the wheel you have identified as the possible culprit. Jack the car about six inches from the ground allowing enough clearance of your hands.

    4

    Position yourself so that you can grab the tire at a 12 o'clock and 6 o'clock position (top center and bottom center).

    5

    Attempt to push the tire to a tilt at 12 o'clock while pulling at 6 o'clock; then pull at 12 o'clock and push at 6 o'clock. Look for 'wiggle' in the wheel, an indication of bad bearings; wheel should be immovable to the tilt.

    6

    Repeat the push and pull method on the tire until you can confirm your wheel does not move loosely from the applied pressure.

Selasa, 29 Maret 2011

How to Display Ford Trouble Codes

How to Display Ford Trouble Codes

To display trouble codes on a Ford vehicle, you will need the a code scanner, and as of 2010, not one code scanner fits all trouble codes. Fords made after 1996 operate under On-Board Diagnostic (OBD-II) coding, but the brakes, tire pressure monitoring and the other diagnostic systems cannot be read by and OBD-II reader. Those systems require their own dedicated code reading hardware. Yet, all diagnostic systems can be accessed the same way. Every Ford manufactured after 1996 has a data link connection beneath the dashboard, usually somewhere near the underside of the steering wheel.

Instructions

    1

    Open the Ford's driver's side door, and place the key in the ignition. Do not turn the electrical system on yet. Just leave the key there, for later use.

    2

    Connect the diagnostic to the data link connection.

    3

    Turn the key in the ignition so that the electrical system comes on. If your particular code reader has an "auto on" function, it will come to life as soon as it senses incoming data. If your scanner does not have this feature, you will have to turn the scanner on.

    4

    Wait a few seconds. As soon as the scanner connects with the diagnostic system, the trouble code will be displayed on the scanner's screen.

Minggu, 27 Maret 2011

My 1997 Jeep Wrangler 2.5 Won't Shift

My 1997 Jeep Wrangler 2.5 Won't Shift

In 1996, Chrysler reintroduced round headlights on the Jeep Wrangler. Known as the TJ, the body styling harkened back to the old CJ series Jeeps. Updated with additional safety equipment, improved performance and interior comfort, TJ production lasted until 2006. Manual transmissions and automatic transmissions were available for the TJ. While the home mechanic can troubleshoot many issues, some repairs require the services of a professional mechanic.

Instructions

Manual Transmission Issues

    1

    Check the clutch. Oil on the clutch can prevent it from releasing. A warped or damaged clutch plate or leaks in the clutch hydraulic system prevent the Jeep from shifting.

    2

    Check the clutch linkage. Worn linkage or springs prevent the clutch from engaging or releasing properly. A worn or damaged striking rod also causes difficulty engaging gears.

    3

    Check fluids. Insufficient transmission oil or oil in poor condition causes damage to gears and synchronizers.

    4

    Check the gears. A noisy transmission or difficulty shifting indicate potential worn or damaged gears or synchronizer assemblies.

Automatic Transmission Issues

    5

    Check fluid levels and condition. Insufficient fluid levels cause noisy or rough shifting or prevent shifting. If the fluid is a dark reddish color or smells burnt, it should be replaced.

    6

    Check the shift linkage. Improperly adjusted linkage prevents the Wrangler from shifting properly or allows the vehicle to move in "Park" or "Neutral."

    7

    Use a Diagnostic Scan Tool. For the 1997 model year, a scan tool connected to the Jeep can diagnose many issues with automatic transmissions. Codes P0700 through P0992 indicate problems with the transmission, fluids, gear ratios and other related systems.

Jumat, 25 Maret 2011

What Can Fuel Flooding of an Engine Cause?

What Can Fuel Flooding of an Engine Cause?

Vehicle engines must have an appropriate amount of air and fuel to run. An engine flooded with too much fuel will not start normally. Cars with carburetor engines commonly flood with fuel, but it can also occur on vehicles with fuel injection systems.

Symptoms

    An engine flooded with fuel will cause the vehicle to smell of gas. The engine will crank but not start, and may sputter. Black smoke may come out of the tailpipe once the vehicle is started.

Causes

    One cause of fuel flooding is pumping the gas pedal while starting the engine. Pumping the pedal creates excess gas in the engine that can soak the spark plugs. Wet spark plugs cannot generate adequate voltage to form a spark, which prevents ignition. Another cause is dirty fuel injectors, since they can remain open and allow too much fuel into the engine.

Solutions

    Let the vehicle to sit 15 to 20 minutes with the hood open to allow the excess fuel to evaporate. Next, try starting the vehicle again and do not pump the gas pedal. Removing the spark plugs will allow them to dry faster. Perform regular vehicle maintenance on the fuel system to keep it clean.

Rabu, 23 Maret 2011

What Can Make a Car Overheat?

What Can Make a Car Overheat?

About 70 percent of the chemical energy in your gasoline does nothing to produce horsepower; it converts to thermal energy during the combustion process. This excess heat needs go somewhere, and when it doesn't, the engine can quickly overheat and fail.

Types of Failure

    Overheating generally arises from one of four things: cooling system failure or blockage, excess heat in the combustion chamber, a mechanical failure in the engine or lack of lubrication.

Coolant Failures

    Common coolant-related issues include a lack of coolant, a blocked or malfunctioning thermostat, a failed water pump or broken water pump belt and a blocked or damaged radiator.

Combustion Heat

    Excess combustion heat/pressure can easily overwhelm the cooling system, particularly when the cause is the addition of a turbo or supercharger. In gas engines, either detonation (knock or ping) or a fuel mixture containing too little fuel will cause this. The opposite can be true for diesels, where overheating is often the result of a mixture containing too much fuel.

Mechanical Failures

    A blown head gasket, broken piston rings and damaged or spun bearings can cause overheating. Low speed overheating is usually the result of a malfunctioning electric fan.

Previous Overheating

    An engine which has severely overheated once will often develop a tendency to overheat in the future. The first overheating may have warped and deformed the block enough to cause excess internal friction and damage to the bearings.

DIY: Car Diagnostics

DIY: Car Diagnostics

The dashboard of your car has a series of trouble indicator lights. These may include your check engine lights, a tire pressure sensor, ABS brakes, and more. Many of these diagnostics can easily by accessed using a diagnostic scanner. Though, in many cases, you will need a different scanner for each diagnostic system. As technology becomes more integrated, there are the possibilities of scanners becoming more multi-lingual with the variety of diagnostic codes used in contemporary cars. Accessing diagnostics requires the same steps for most systems.

Instructions

    1

    Look at the trouble indicator lights on your vehicle, this will help you determine what sort of scanner you will need. Then, drive to an auto parts store and shop for scanners. Once you return to your home garage, you can get started.

    2

    Consult your scanner's owner's manual for the exact procedure needed. Some functions only require the vehicle's electrical system be turned on, and others need the engine running. Also, mark the pages that list trouble or fault codes. You will need to consult those lists later.

    3

    Find the data link connection for your vehicle. In most vehicles, it will be located on the driver's side, beneath the dash, and somewhere between the the gas pedal and the the hood release latches. If you have trouble locating the this diagnostic port, there are websites that can tell you the exact location.

    4

    Hook your OBD-II, ABS, or TPMS scanner into the data link connection. The next couple of steps may vary slightly on the type, model, and part-number of the scanner you are using.

    5

    Start your engine or turn the electrical system on, whichever your scanner and task calls for. Follow that by turning the scanner on. Some scanners will turn themselves on once a connection is sensed, others will not. Also, some scanners will instantly pull the fault codes, and others require you to key a "read" command in.

    6

    Read the messages on your scanner's screen. These will be the fault codes for what is afflicting your vehicle. In the case of OBD-II scanners, the codes are divided into generic and brand-specific codes. The manual will not have the brand-specific codes, and you will likely not find them in your vehicle's owner's manual. Though, these codes can easily be found online. Also, the code descriptions contained in your manual will be succinct and brief. Further information regarding parts and repair procedures can be found at site like automd.com or autozone.com. This way, you can make an informed decision on whether to attempt a DIY solution or to consult a professional mechanic.

Senin, 21 Maret 2011

Signs of a Bad Connecting Rod

The connecting rods in your engine are the components that support the piston as it travels up and down inside of the cylinder bore in the block. The connecting rod is fastened around the crankshaft on one end and to the piston on the other end. The ends of the rod spin around the crankshaft and the wrist pin of the piston. As the crankshaft turns, the rod also turns, forcing the piston up and down. A bad rod or rod bearing will eventually destroy an engine.

Knocking Noise From Engine

    Listen for a knocking noise when the engine is running. This will likely be worse when the engine is cold and before the oil has had a chance to warm up and begin thoroughly lubricating the components. A rod knock is a hollow sound that speeds up as the engine RPMs rise. The knock may still be there when the car is warm or may go away entirely.

Low Oil Pressure

    Check the oil pressure. A bad rod or rod bearing can also cause the oil pressure to be excessively low. Signs of low oil pressure can be an oil pressure light turning on or a low oil pressure reading if the engine has an oil pressure gauge.

Excessive Oil Consumption

    Determine if the engine is using excessive oil. If the engine is consistently running low on oil, it may be due to a bad connecting rod or bad connecting rod bearing.

Visual Inspection

    The only surefire way to determine if you have a bad connecting rod is to disassemble the engine and examine the connecting rod, the bearings, the piston wrist pin and the crankshaft where the connecting rod bearings slide back and forth. This is obviously an expensive proposition, but a bad connecting rod will require a full engine rebuild anyway.

Engine Head Problems

Engine Head Problems

Cylinder heads are responsible for ducting air into and out of an engine's cylinders, and for keeping combustion pressure contained inside them. Cylinder heads are one of the most complex parts of an engine and can malfunction in a number of ways.

System Crossovers

    Cylinder heads act as a junction point for the oiling system, cooling system and exhaust system. Oil in the coolant, coolant in the oil, exhaust bubbles in the coolant or coolant in the exhaust (as indicated by white smoke) can indicate a blown cylinder head gasket or cracked cylinder head.

Valve Train Malfunctions

    Cylinder heads house the engine's valve train and can contain one or more camshafts if the engine is an overhead cam design. A consistent tapping that rises and falls with engine's revolutions per minute (rpm) may indicate worn valve guides, a misadjusted valve train and/or worn out or broken valve springs.

Repairs

    You can typically perform valve train repairs with the cylinder head on the engine, but any sort of system-crossover issue will almost certainly require cylinder head removal. Water in the oil may not necessarily indicate head failure, though; this is also symptomatic of intake manifold gasket failure.

Minggu, 20 Maret 2011

What Are the Symptoms of a Fuel Pump Going Bad?

What Are the Symptoms of a Fuel Pump Going Bad?

A fuel pump typically doesn't abruptly stop functioning. In most cases of fuel pump failure, the failure is preceded by numerous symptoms of a fuel pump going bad. Taking the time to become familiar with these symptoms can help keep you from becoming stranded at an inconvenient time and place, as the problem can be confirmed and dealt with before the fuel pump fails completely.

Power Loss

    Because it is typical for a failing fuel pump to have intermittent mini-failures before it reaches the point of complete and total failure, watch for distinct instances of power loss that occur with increasing frequency. This loss of power can be experienced when starting from a stopped position or when moving at the higher speeds associated with highway driving. This loss of power is sudden, with the return of engine power being equally as sudden, as the pump stops functioning fully and then abruptly returns to normal function.

Hesitation

    Another common symptom is a delayed response to fuel demand. When the driver presses the fuel pedal sharply, such as when passing another vehicle, there is a distinct hesitation in vehicle response, which could indicate that the fuel pump is not functioning well enough to respond to the increased fuel demand as quickly or smoothly as it should.

Stalling

    As the condition of the fuel pump continues to deteriorate, what was once hesitation could become stalling. This is more common when making a fuel demand from a stopped position, but stalling at higher speeds is not unheard of. If the fuel pump is not moving the fuel smoothly or is doing so intermittently, the engine may not get enough to continue operating, resulting in stalling.

Difficulty In Starting Vehicle

    When a fuel pump is in the process of going bad, starting the vehicle may be difficult at times. That is because the engine cannot start without the correct flow of fuel. A fuel pump that has not yet reached full-out failure and is intermittently functioning or is slow to respond to fuel demand may require multiple attempts at starting the vehicle before successfully providing the necessary fuel flow. If experiencing difficulty in starting along with other symptoms of a fuel pump going bad, odds are that time is growing short for the fuel pump and complete failure is imminent. Take heed and act soon to avoid being stranded.

Signs & Symptoms of a Leaky Fuel Injector

Signs & Symptoms of a Leaky Fuel Injector

Fuel injectors are more than simple nozzles used to spray gas into your engine. Injectors use a very fine needle and seat valve to meter fuel; if that needle valve gets bent or something goes wrong in the injector's electromagnet or return spring system, the injector can hang open and provide your engine with a constant spray of fuel that it doesn't need.

Dead Miss

    This is the single most obvious sign of a leaking injector. If a cylinder's injector hangs open, it'll overwhelm that cylinder with fuel and effectively quench any combustion that occurs. If you suspect a dead cylinder, start disconnecting plug wires. Disconnecting the plug wire on a live cylinder will cause the engine to drop in rpm; pulling one on a dead cylinder will have no effect at all.

Fuel Coming from the Tail Pipe

    The fuel that goes into your dead cylinder has to come out somewhere, and that's the exhaust pipe. If you've got a dead cylinder, the exhaust gases reek of fuel and the cylinders are all getting spark, then odds are you've got a leaking injector. To prevent damage to the catalytic converter and oxygen sensor, go ahead and unplug the injector harness and plug wire from the affected injector until you get the car fixed.

Sabtu, 19 Maret 2011

How to Measure Gear Backlash

How to Measure Gear Backlash

Within a differential are two gears, a ring gear and a pinion gear. When the vehicle's driveshaft turns, it rotates the pinion gear. The pinion gear intermeshes with and turns the ring gear. The ring gear transfers the power through the axle shafts to the tires. The amount of play between the ring and pinion gears is referred to as gear backlash. Measuring the backlash is a fairly straightforward task and is a quick way of determining whether a professional adjustment or more extensive service may be necessary.

Instructions

    1

    Position the differential securely within the jaws of a large vise with the gears facing up.

    2

    Attach a dial indicator gauge to the outer edge of the differential. Some gauges feature a magnetic base that attaches to the differential, while other gauges are positioned over a bolt hole within the edge of the differential and secured with one of the differential's bolts. Tighten the bolt through the edge of the differential and into the base of the gauge.

    3

    Position the contact point of the dial indicator gauge square against any one tooth of the ring gear. The ring gear is the large circular-shaped gear. The contact point is the metal post that, when pressed toward the gauge, causes the gauge needle to move.

    4

    Turn the adjustment knob on the side of the dial indicator gauge until the gauge needle points to the "0" setting.

    5

    Rock the ring gear back and forth with your hand while monitoring the gauge needle. The distance indicated on the gauge is the gear backlash.

Audi TT Sludge Problem

Audi TT Sludge Problem

When the oil light comes on while driving an Audi TT or any other vehicle, it is reason to pull over and call a tow truck. Lack of lubrication of the moveable parts may result in total engine failure. There are various reasons that the oil light may come on. One of them is that an accumulation of sludge has caused the oil pumping system to malfunction.

Definition of Sludge

    A tar-like substance called sludge is created when engine oil is heated to extreme temperatures and its chemical makeup is altered. The oil breaks down, oxidizes, and the additive components of it break away and solidify. Oils that are made from minerals are more prone to create sludge than synthetic oils that have a higher tolerance to heat. One of the reasons that man-made oils were developed was to combat sludge and give an engine longer life.

How Sludge Affects an Engine

    Sludge build-up affects an engine by clogging components. This process is also referred to as "coking." Any number of the moving parts may cease to function when coking occurs. When there is sufficient sludge in an engine to cause damage, the oil pressure may drop, the oil light may come on, the engine may not run smoothly, or it may cease to run completely. Moving engine parts may have to be replaced and the sludge may have to be cleaned out.

The Audi Recall

    Audi recalled its 1.8T engines because of sludge problems. One reason coking may occur is that the turbo-powered engine may be too powerful for the small amount of oil that it holds. Over time, the oil is so overworked that it breaks down.

How to Eliminate Sludge

    The use of a larger oil filter may reduce the build-up of sludge in the vehicle's oil. Some mechanics recommend washing the sludge build-up from the engine, while others say that that may cause more harm to components than good. Owner attentiveness is the overall key to keeping your Audi TT sludge-free. The oil should be checked and changed more often than the manufacturer recommends (about every 3,000 miles for an oil change). Synthetic oil is also recommended by Repairpal.com and an owner might consider replacing the oil filter with a larger one. The best authority from whom to ask advice is a Certified Audi Technician.

Jumat, 18 Maret 2011

Will Removing the Spark Plug Wire Make the Rod Knock Go Away?

Will Removing the Spark Plug Wire Make the Rod Knock Go Away?

Eliminating the ignition source for the cylinder exhibiting rod knock does seem to make the defect disappear. However, a rod knock indicates a mechanical problem at the bottom end of the piston-connecting rod. The connecting rod is so-called because it connects the piston to the crankshaft. The small upper end of the rod loops around a pin that runs through the piston, while the larger bottom end loops around a journal of the engine crankshaft. A shim-like metal bearing in this loop prevents wear of the rod and crankshaft while maintaining the precise clearance needed for lubrication. Should this bearing become worn or damaged, the clearance becomes exaggerated well beyond any specified tolerances.

Tricks Of The Trade

    Combustion inside a cylinder takes place when the spark plug ignites the compressed air-fuel mixture. The piston is at, or near, the top of its stroke at that time, having compressed the mixture. The combustion forces the piston down, and the impact resulting from the excess clearance of the defective rod makes a deep knocking noise. Professional-grade engine analyzer machines are capable of shutting off the ignition spark in any engine cylinder. By "killing" cylinders one at a time, a technician can determine the source of the knocking noise. When combustion ceases in the suspect cylinder, no explosive force acts on the piston, and the defective rod is seemingly silenced. While this is a great means of diagnosing which cylinder is at fault, no permanent relief is achieved.

Trade-Offs

    Circumventing the ignition of a cylinder creates new problems without addressing the actual defect. Raw fuel remains in the combustion chamber until the piston exhaust stroke pushes it into the exhaust system. Aside from the noxious emissions produced, some fuel can collect and possibly ignite in the exhaust system. Trace amounts of the raw fuel can also slip past the piston rings and pollute the engine oil. Removing the spark plug wire from any cylinder may have detrimental effects on ignition system components. The powerful voltage meant for the spark plug can scorch the distributor cap, ignition module or coil-pack assemblies. A disconnected plug wire left dangling in the engine compartment might ignite errant engine oil or gasoline.

Deeper Damage

    The connecting rod remains defective even if audible symptoms can be quieted. The slightest amount of rod knock signifies damage of the rod bearing, at least. Small metal particles can slough off of the defective part and be carried throughout the engine by the oil. The polluted lubricant can cause destruction of the engine parts that normally benefit from its presence. Component damage could be widespread, should the knocking be ignored for any length of time. Given proper regard, the situation may not reach catastrophic levels. The old adage about opportunity knocking is actually appropriate in this instance.

The Real Remedy

    Repairs for a quickly diagnosed rod knock may be as simple as replacing the defective bearing and flushing the crankcase before replenishing the oil and filter. However, this is rarely the case. Whatever factors lead to the destruction of this part typically affected others. At times, the crankshaft and connecting rod bearings can be replaced without a complete engine tear-down. Even these efforts can result in a mere patch-up that has no long-term benefit. The precise machining and repairs required to restore and re-size the crankshaft journals and rod ends often cost as much, or more, than a used or rebuilt engine for a particular vehicle.

The Causes of a Bad Oil Filter

The Causes of a Bad Oil Filter

Oil filters live a life of constant pressure, forced to deal not only with powerful hydrostatic forces but the sort of contaminants found in any engine. Premature clogging or failure isn't a particularly rare occurrence, but it may signify a malfunction of more immediate importance somewhere in your engine.

Manufacturer Defects

    Oil filter manufacturers pump these things out by the millions, and every so often a bad one -- or 12 dozen -- will slip past quality control. Bad threads and gaskets are two of the more common manufacturer defects, followed by defective filter media. Oil filter manufacturers typically order these items in bulk from a local or overseas supplier and then assemble them at the filter factory. Of course, the original supplier also has quality-control procedures, but when you're ordering supplies from four or five different suppliers, the odds of getting a bad one go up.

Sludge

    Sludge is an evil entity lurking in the bowels of certain engines. Essentially wet charcoal, sludge happens when oil sits on a hot spot in an engine and cooks away into carbon. When that carbon hardens like plaque in a vein, it inhibits flow and soaks up even more of the oil and keeps it on the hot spot. While detergents and solvents in the oil can help to reduce sludge, eventually they'll break up so much of the sludge that it gets dissolved in the oil. This is what causes fairly new oil to turn into thick, nasty black stuff within a few hundred miles. When that oil passes through the filter, it clogs the filter media and causes oil to flow around the media and through the bypass valve.

Metal in the Filter

    Engine bearings are wear surfaces, and they're designed to, well, wear out. When bearing material wears off of the bearing surface, it enters the oiling system as a fine, silver powder. Generally speaking, you won't have a enough metal powder floating around in your oiling system to clog the filter; if you do, then you need to switch to a better oil, replace the filter more often or look into something more serious. More-serious problems include premature bearing, bore and bushing wear. While some very fine metal dust in the filter is normal, be very wary if the particles are large enough to individually identify, or if you see slivers. Both of these indicate that something is wearing far faster than it should.

Filter Explosion

    Oil filters typically burst where the cap meets the case. This may come down to a manufacturer defect if it only happens once and you're not reading excess oil pressure, but your engine may be at fault otherwise. Your engine has at least one pressure-relief valve in the oil pump and usually a second at the oil filter. If the pressure-release valve in your pump gets stuck, the filter bypass valve may not be able to flow well enough to handle the rapid pressure spikes that happen when you rev the throttle. The same may happen with a bad bypass valve even with a functioning pressure relief valve, but it's not as likely. Misaligned bearings can cause pressure to spike faster than the pump relief valve can compensate, but that's fairly rare relative to a stuck valve.

1999 Chevy Lumina Engine Code P1870

Powered by a 4T65E and a 3.1-liter in the base model or a 3.8-liter in the LTZ model, your 1996 Lumina is still a reasonably common car on the road today. Despite a good reliability after a long life of service, components are bound to wear down and fail. Luckily your Lumina is equipped with and OBD-II system that helps pinpoint problems; in most cases before serious damage is caused. Code P1870 relates to the transmission and its performance. The root cause could be one of few; a few causes that range from minor to serious.

The Code

    Code P1870 in your 99 Lumina is set when the ECM detects transmission slippage. The computer compares the speed of the transmission output shaft and the actual engine speed. Acceptable slip of the torque converter clutch is negative 20 to 50 RPM. For trouble code P1870 to set and illuminate the check engine light, the torque converter slip has to be 200 to 1500 RPM for 8 seconds a total of 3 consecutive times, with lock-up turned off in between each occurrence.

Lock Up

    With a basic torque converter you lose 10% of the energy created from your engine to slippage from the hydraulic coupling process that takes place in the torque converter. With the addition of a clutch, Hydraulic pressure is applied and the clutch makes a mechanical link between the transmission and the engine raising efficiency to nearly 100%. When the torque converter clutch begins to slip it generates extra heat that can cause transmission damage and lowers efficiency.

Quick Fix

    There may be a possibility that your whole problem is caused by a clogged transmission filter. If the filter hasnt been changed in a while it could be restricting flow; preventing a full clutch engagement. Support the vehicle with jack stands and procure a large drain pan. Loosen all of the pan bolts and gently pry down on the rear of the pan to allow the fluid to drain. Support the pan by hand and remove all the bolts. Lower the pan as level as possible and pour the remaining fluid into the drain pan. Clean the mating surfaces and pull the filter out of the transmission. Remove the rubber grommet that secures the filter to the transmission. Press the new grommet into place; followed by the transmission filter. Place the new gasket on the pan and loosely install the bolts. Tighten all the pan bolts to 10 foot-pounds; do not over tighten them or the gasket will leak. Clear the trouble codes and drive to inspect for proper operation.

The Bad Problem

    If a transmission and filter change didnt work there is one of three other problems, all of which will require extensive work. First the torque converter lock-up solenoid could be weak and not supplying enough hydraulic pressure to maintain torque converter lock-up. The torque converter clutch could also be worn and simply cannot create enough friction to maintain full lock up. The last possible cause is a worn or restrictive valve body. The valve body serves as the main junction point for hydraulic control and serves as the director for TCC lock-up as well. Replacing the valve body is almost as simple as the filter except there are several different length bolts and check balls that have to be positioned in a certain place. If you opt to remove the valve body lower it down level and take a picture of the position of each check ball. You can send your valve body to a specialist for rebuilding and machining.

Kamis, 17 Maret 2011

1999 Dodge Intrepid Does Not Have Spark

The Dodge Intrepid's 2.7-liter V-6, like many modern engines, uses one coil set directly atop each spark plug. This coil-on-plug ignition does two things: it eliminates voltage-wasting spark plug wires and it keeps all of the engine's spark plugs from depending upon a single source of energy. So, a no-spark condition at all of the spark plugs can't be tracked back to a single coil; rather, it's a systemic issue that probably has more to do with the computer than the ignition itself.

Instructions

    1

    Unplug one of your ignition coils, which are sitting on top of the engine's front-most valve cover under the plastic engine cover. Slide the clip side of your test light onto one of the terminals on the chassis-side wiring harness and poke the probe side into contact with the other terminal. Have an assistant attempt to start the engine. If the test light doesn't flicker or illuminate in any way, then you indeed have a no-spark condition.

    2

    Locate the crankshaft position sensor; you can find it on transmission bellhousing right next to the engine, just above the differential housing on the transmission. Turn the ignition key to the "On" position. Set your digital multimeter to read in volts.

    3

    Poke the digital multimeter's black needle probe into the black wire with a light blue stripe on the crank sensor harness; this is the sensor's ground wire. Poke the red needle probe into the orange wire. You should get a reading of at least 7 volts; if not, the computer isn't sending power to the sensor and you've either got a problem with the computer or the computer isn't getting power from the battery.

    4

    Watch your hands and arms to make sure that they're not near any moving parts. Poke your red needle probe into the sensor's orange output wire and have your assistant attempt to start the engine. You should get a voltage reading that bounces quickly back and forth from 0.3 volts and 5.0 volts. If you get no voltage reading, then you've got a bad crank sensor.

    5

    Repeat the above test with the camshaft position sensor. You'll find it on the front of the engine -- opposite the transmission bellhousing -- plugged into a thick section of wiring harness just above the crankshaft. The crank and cam position sensors are functionally identical, so the same testing procedures and specs apply.

    6

    Pop the cover on your under-hood fuse block, or power distribution center. This, as the name implies, is your car's main fuse panel and provides power to the computer. Your car uses an automatic shut-down system to disable the computer and fuel pump, and it uses a relay in the fuse box. Look at the diagram on your power distribution center lid and pull the main relay out of the box. It's the one closest to the driver's side of the car and on the rearmost part of the power distribution center.

    7

    Look at the bottom of the relay. You'll see numbers stamped into the relay right next to its metal terminals. The numbers are 30 -- common feed, 85 -- coil ground, 86 -- coil battery, 87 -- normally open and 87A -- normally closed.

    8

    Set your digital multimeter to read in ohms of resistance. Touch the probes to terminals 85 and 86; you should get a reading of about 75 ohms. You should get a "0" ohm or complete continuity reading between terminals 30 and 87A, and no continuity -- no connection at all -- between 87 and 30.

    9

    Connect terminal 85 to your negative battery terminal with a jumper wire and connect terminal 86 to the positive terminal of your battery. Be careful of sparks. You should hear the relay click shut and activate.

    10

    Retest terminals 87 and 30; you should have complete continuity according to the digital multimeter. You should see no continuity, an open circuit, between terminals 87A and 30. If your relay passes all these tests, then you have a problem with the computer or the power supply to the computer.

    11

    Look down into your fuse box and compare the relay to the terminal holes in the box. Look at the terminal slots in the relay hole and find the two slots that correspond to terminals 85 -- the constant ground -- and 86 --the switched 12-volt power supply.

    12

    Turn your ignition key to the "Off" position, and set your digital multimeter to read in volts. Touch the black sensor probe to the terminal 85 slot in your box, and the other probe to the positive terminal on your battery. You should get a reading of at least 10.5 volts. If you don't, you've got a dead battery or a bad ground.

    13

    Touch the red sensor probe to the terminal 86 slot in your box. You should get a "0" reading as long as the ignition key is off. Have your assistant turn the key to the "On" position; you should immediately get a 10.5-volt reading, at least. If not, you've got a problem with the ignition switch relay, the switch itself or power supply to the box.

    14

    Correlate your data. If you've established that you've got no spark, a signal from the crank and cam position sensors, switched power going to your computer relay and a working computer relay, then that only leaves one remaining area for fault: the computer itself.

How to Check the Output of a Chevrolet Alternator

How to Check the Output of a Chevrolet Alternator

The Chevrolet's alternator charges the battery by putting out amperage and voltage. Chevy alternators, depending on the application, are rated at 45 to more than 100 amps. If the alternator stops working, the battery does not charge. The vehicle must be running to test the output of the alternator. While some stores might be able to test the alternator, most of the stand-alone testing machines check only if the diodes are bad.

Instructions

    1

    Start the vehicle. If it does not start, attach the battery pack to the battery. Try to start the vehicle. If the vehicle still will not start and you know the battery is dead, charge the battery with the charger for at least six hours.

    2

    Set the voltmeter to 20 volts. Touch the positive battery terminal with the red lead. Touch the negative battery terminal with the black lead.

    3

    Read the output of the alternator. If the voltmeter is putting out 13.5 to 14.5 volts, the alternator is properly charging the battery. Test the alternator further by turning on all the lights and the heater. The voltage should drop for a second or two, but should go back up to at least 13 volts. If not, the alternator is charging, but not well.

    4

    Turn off the Chevrolet. Hold the voltmeter's red lead on the positive battery terminal and the black lead on the negative terminal. Have a helper start the vehicle while you watch the voltmeter. If the volt meter drops below 10 volts, the alternator is not putting out enough amperage and should be replaced before it quits completely.

Rabu, 16 Maret 2011

Free Automotive Troubleshooting

Free Automotive Troubleshooting

Often, the first indication of a problem with an automobile is a warning light appearing on the dashboard. These warning lights, such as the "Check Engine" light, are generated by the vehicle's electronic control module (ECM) in response to issues related to the vehicle's electronic systems, sensors or malfunctioning mechanical components. Each potential problem is linked to a unique code that the ECM stores. One of the easiest and most effective ways to diagnose car problems is to scan the ECM with an error code reader and then translate the codes to diagnose the problem.

Instructions

    1

    Take the car to a location that offers free diagnostic testing using an error code reader. National parts store chains such as Auto Zone and Advance Auto Parts offer this type of free diagnostic services. Other stores may offer this service as well. Once you arrive, tell the technician that you want to scan your vehicle's ECM to find out what error codes your car is generating.

    2

    Hook the error code reader up to the ECM, which is located on the driver's side of the car underneath the dashboard. Press the scan button on the error code reader. In most cases, the store employee will perform the scan for you, as he already knows how to operate the machine. Make a list of the codes that appear on the screen of the error code reader.

    3

    Decode the codes generated by the error code reader. In most cases, the auto parts store will do this automatically and provide you with a free list of the codes and their corresponding meanings. You can also use the resources section of this article to look up the error codes yourself.

How to Troubleshoot a 1986 Buick Century Car That Just Shuts Off

How to Troubleshoot a 1986 Buick Century Car That Just Shuts Off

Unpredictable behavior from a trusted old car can be disconcerting and possibly dangerous. Comfort derived from years of faithful service might become replaced by doubts in your Century's abilities. Thankfully, the components involved in such malfunctions are easy to get to, and inexpensive to replace. Engine options for the 1986 Buick Century include a throttle-body injected four-cylinder from the Pontiac Division of GM, a carbureted Chevrolet 2.8 liter V-6, and two versions of Buick's 3.8-liter V-6. When the 2.8-liter V-6 engine begins stalling, the first step in the repair is to troubleshoot the issue.

Instructions

Cap and Rotor Tests

    1

    Remove the air cleaner to ease access to the distributor. Use a thin shaft screwdriver to release the distributor cap hold-down screws. Lift the cap clear of the distributor and set it aside. Remove the rotor from the distributor shaft by backing out the two retaining screws until they freewheel. Lift the rotor out of the mounting surface.

    2

    Inspect the rotor surfaces for burned or pitted areas in the center of the plastic rotor body. Replace the rotor if any signs of arcing or decay are noted. Align the pegs on the rotor underside with the corresponding holes in the mounting surface to avoid installing the rotor backward. Tighten the attaching screws.

    3

    Examine the inside of the distributor cap. Replace the cap if any cracks or black, fuzzy carbon tracks are evident. Inspect the coil contact brush, or button in the center of the cap. Replace the cap and brush if the button appears worn or burned. Install the air cleaner.

Driving Tests

    4

    Disconnect the vacuum hose from the distributor advance and plug the hose with a golf tee or sharpened pencil.

    5

    Drive the car until it reaches operating temperature or stalls.

    6

    Replace the distributor pick-up coil if the stalling ceases while the vacuum advance hose is disconnected to remedy pickup coil supply wire fatigue. You will lose engine power and fuel economy by continuing to drive with the advance hose disconnected, even though the stalling condition is cured.

Selasa, 15 Maret 2011

How to Test an Alternator by Disconnecting the Battery

How to Test an Alternator by Disconnecting the Battery

Proper testing of an alternator requires the use of a multimeter or battery tester. An alternator produces direct current (DC) but can also produce alternative current (AC), which can damage the various electrical components of your vehicle, including the computer. Disconnecting the battery while the engine is running does allow you to identify if the alternator is weak, but poses potential harm to your engine. Use this method if no other alternative exists and practice extreme caution while doing so.

Instructions

    1

    Start the vehicle and engage the emergency brake.

    2

    Open the hood and locate the battery. Stand to the side of the battery while disconnecting it to avoid the moving parts of the engine (fan and belts).

    3

    Turn off all unnecessary components, such as the lights, radio, and A/C, to limit the drain on your alternator. Allow the vehicle to warm up to operating temperature.

    4

    Put on protective glasses and rubber gloves. Disconnect the negative lead from the battery and set it to the side.

    5

    Run the engine uninterrupted for 15 to 30 minutes. Do not rev the engine or drive, if possible. A healthy alternator will allow the vehicle to run.Reconnect the negative lead to the battery if no interruptions or issues are noted.

    6

    Check all the fuses and reconnect the battery if there is an interruption in the vehicle running. If all of the fuses are fine, take your vehicle to an auto shop to have your alternator professionally tested. You likely have a bad alternator.

My Escalade Won't Start

My Escalade Won't Start

The Escalade is manufactured and sold by Cadillac, which has been around for over 100 years. The Escalade offers a variety of upscale features and has been the car of choice for many big-name celebrities over the years. Just as with any vehicle, the Escalade can have problems starting and may require troubleshooting on some occasions. There are a few things that can be checked prior to calling in a professional mechanic to diagnose a problem with your Escalade.

Instructions

    1

    Place the key into the ignition of the Escalade. Try to turn the key. If you are unable to turn it, adjust the steering wheel until it is in the locked position, then try again. If the steering column is not locked, you will be unable to turn the key at all.

    2

    Turn the key to the "Accessories" position and try to turn on the interior lights or headlights of the Escalade. If they do not light up, there may be a problem with the battery. You may need to charge, jump start or replace the battery.

    3

    Check the fuel level. The Escalade will not start properly if there is not enough fuel in the tank. Add one or two gallons of fuel to the vehicle if you are unsure how much fuel is in the tank. Attempt to start the engine again after the fuel is added.

    4

    Pull the lever that releases the hood. Walk to the front of the vehicle and open the hood. Locate the oil, transmission fluid and coolant levels. Consult the owner's manual to find the location of each of these, as they will differ slightly by model year. Check each fluid to be sure that it is filled between the minimum and maximum guidelines. If fluid levels are low, the engine of the Escalade can be damaged or have problems starting.

    5

    Attempt to start the car again while listening for any noises that the vehicle makes. Some sounds can indicate certain problems. No sound at all when attempting to start the engine could indicate a bad ignition switch. Clicking sounds can indicate a problem with the starter. The Escalade engine sputtering can indicate a problem with the fueling system.

    6

    Call a professional mechanic or have your Cadillac Escalade towed to a nearby garage or dealership if it still won't start. Dealerships will be able to answer further questions regarding diagnostic testing and repair.

How to Check the Fuel Pump in a 1996 Ranger

How to Check the Fuel Pump in a 1996 Ranger

Ford introduced the Ranger in 1983. The 1996 Ford Ranger was equipped with the option of a 2.3-liter in-line 4-cylinder engine, a 3.0-liter V-6 engine, or a 4.0-liter in-line 6-cylinder engine. The 1996 Ranger was also available in 2-wheel or 4-wheel drive. The fuel pump and other components of the fuel delivery system can go bad over time. Diagnosing the fuel pump is a project that should take no longer than one hour, even if you have never done this type of work before.

Instructions

    1

    Open the fuel door of the Ranger and remove the fuel filler cap. Place your ear next to the fuel filler hole. Ask your assistant to start the engine, or turn the engine over if it will not start.

    2

    Listen for a "gurgling" or fluid motion sound from the filler neck as the engine is turning over or running. If you do not hear a sound from the fuel filler neck that resembles fluid sloshing or moving around, then you may have a malfunctioning fuel pump.

    3

    Ask you assistant to turn the engine off, but keep your ear near the filler hole. Ask your assistant to turn the key to "Accessories" without starting the truck, and then back off. Ask him/her to repeat this step four or five times. While the key is engaging the "Accessories" position, you are going to listen for a high pitched hum or buzzing noise from the filler hole. This noise is the electronics in the fuel pump engaging and priming the fuel system. If you hear no noise when the key is turned to "Accessories" then you may have a malfunctioning fuel pump.

Senin, 14 Maret 2011

Troubleshooting a 1986 Subaru GL Fuel Pump

Troubleshooting a 1986 Subaru GL Fuel Pump

If you are having problems with your Subaru GL fuel pump, do not automatically assume that the problem lies with the pump itself. The process for making repairs on any automobile is to start with the least expensive possible problem and work your way through each one. If you eventually do find out that you have to change the fuel pump, you can take care of the project yourself. The project will take just a couple of hours.

Instructions

    1

    Open the engine compartment and locate the relay box on the driver side of the car. It will be on the fender well, close to the firewall. Pry the lid to the relay box open carefully using the screwdriver. Locate the fuel pump relay according to the diagram on the inside of the relay box lid. Select one of the other relays that are the same as the fuel pump relay and take it out by pulling it straight up.

    2

    Remove the fuel pump relay by pulling it straight up and insert the similar relay in its place. The replacement relay should be one that you know works. Turn the key on and listen for a whirring sound indicating that the fuel pump is working. If there is no change, turn the key off and put the relays in their original locations.

    3

    Place the cover back on the relay box by snapping it place, and close the engine compartment. Locate the fuse box on the inside of the car, driver side, under the dash. Remove the fuse box cover by lifting it off. Locate the fuel pump fuse according to the diagram on the inside of the fuse box lid. Pull the fuse using the fuse puller.

    4

    Check the center of the fuse to see if the filament is burned. If the fuse is burned, you need to replace it. Once you have a new one in, turn the key on and listen again for the whirring sound. If the fuse is fine, then you will need to replace the pump.

1986 Toyota Pickup Carburetor Problems

1986 Toyota Pickup Carburetor Problems

Toyota pickups have a reputation as being nearly indestructible. While it's true they go thousands of miles with little or no attention, they do have their quirks. Toyota carburetors, in particular, can be a bit fussy.

Clogged Jets

    Like any carburetor, the one on your Toyota truck is prone to clogged jets. An occasional spray of cleaner down the throat can help, or try a can of fuel additive every other oil change.

Vacuum Leaks

    Pay particular attention to the vacuum lines between the carburetor and valve cover on these little trucks, where the high heat can cause them to loosen or harden and crack. Also check between the engine and fender well for lines that tend to get disconnected accidentally during an oil change or other service.

Float Troubles

    Problems with the float can cause poor throttle response and a host of other woes. Check the sight glass on the float bowl if your model has one; the fuel level should be between the marks. Otherwise, pull the top off and check the float level with a gauge. Also make sure the float isn't sticking or leaking.

Worn-Out Parts

    Eventually, even a Toyota carburetor needs a rebuild. Make sure you get a good kit with full instructions. The kit should also contain a needle and seat valve and an accelerator pump diaphragm, two of the most trouble-prone parts.

Honda Accord Fuel Pump Problems

Honda Accord Fuel Pump Problems

The fuel pump in your Honda Accord pressurizes gasoline and distributes it into the fuel injectors and the engine. Look out for a few symptoms of a failing fuel pump when considering its replacement.

Faulty Fuel Pump and the Engine

    Since the fuel pump essentially delivers the fuel to the engine, some of the first signs of a failing fuel pump show through engine operations. For example, if the engine rotates but doesn't start or your Accord boosts in acceleration when you press the gas pedal consistently, the fuel pump may be faulty. Other symptoms include an engine that lopes in idle, or idles unpredictably.

Other Signs

    Your Accord's fuel pump may leak fuel around the fuel tank and become noisy while the car is running. If so, must replace your fuel pump.

Replacing the Fuel Pump

    Your Honda Accord has an in-line/direct drive-type fuel pump; replace it with an exact match. Also, replace the fuel filter when replacing the fuel pump. Take extreme caution when working on your Accord's fuel system. Do not smoke or allow open flame or sparks near your work area.

Minggu, 13 Maret 2011

Transmission Issues in Mini Coopers

Transmission Issues in Mini Coopers

The Mini Cooper was an instant suburban hit when it was first introduced in the United States in 2001. Since that time, several improvements have been made to the diminutive coupe to give it modern style and performance. This is not without its drawbacks, as many consumers are reporting problems with certain Mini Cooper transmission models.

Problems of Reliability

    According to the New Mini website, Mini Cooper transmissions, such as the variable automatic transmissions used in the Mini Cooper S, have issues with durability and reliability. This seems to be supported by claims filed through the Consumer Affairs website, which state that newly bought Mini Cooper S models have mechanical transmission problems that create excessive engine noise and difficulty maintaining acceleration. New Mini states that the complicated systems involved in operating the CVT transmission may have something to do with its unreliability.

Clutch and Cold Start Problems

    Spontaneous transmission failure can be a problem with the CVT and Mini Cooper 6-speed manual transmissions. Clutch burnout can happen quickly in these vehicles because of its size-to-weight ratio. According to Consumer Guide Automotive, the Mini has the shortest body of any car in the United States market, excluding the Smart Car, but one of the longest wheel bases, putting it on par with normal size coupes in its class. The result is a strain on components that can easily be aggravated by an aggressive clutch user.

Downgrading For Improvements

    Owners that have problems with the CVT transmission have the option of seeking an earlier transmission model and simply swapping the parts. While this may restore functionality and speed to the Mini Cooper, it does come with a drawback---no cruise control. In 2001, when the Mini was first introduced, it lacked cruise control, though the manual transmission the vehicle employed was said to be much more reliable than newer models, according to the New Mini website.

Why Would There Be Oil in the Spark Plugs in a 1999 Kia Sportage?

Oil fouling in the spark plugs of a 1999 Kia Sportage is usually indicative of a serious problem within its 2.0-liter engine. Worn or damaged engine components can contribute to loss of oil control, allowing oil to seep into the combustion chamber. Clean or change spark plugs contaminated with oil to fix a misfire cause by a fouled plug temporarily, but the problem causing the oil fouling must be corrected.

Valve Guides

    Worn valve guides or valve guide seals in the Sportages engine can cause oil to leak from the valve cover area on top of the cylinder head down into the combustion chamber. Kia specifications call for a 0.0010 to 0.0024 inch clearance between the intake valve and valve guide, and a 0.0012 to 0.0026 inch clearance between the exhaust valve and valve guide. Normally, the valve guide seal prevents oil from seeping through this gap. Clearances greater than what is specified can cause excessive lateral motion of the valve stem at the valve seal area and damage the valve seal. The damaged valve seals and excessive valve-to-valve guide clearance allow oil to leak down into the cylinder, particularly on the intake valve. Valves, valve guides and valve seals must be replaced to correct this problem.

Cylinder Walls

    Wear to the cylinder walls can create excessive piston-to-cylinder wall clearance and an out-of-round condition in the cylinder bore, which prevent the oil control rings on the piston from removing excess oil from the cylinder wall. Oil left on the cylinder walls is introduced into the combustion chamber where it will cause oil fouling of the spark plugs. Scoring of the cylinder wall can also prevent proper oil control ring operation and allow oil into the combustion chamber. The engine must be rebuilt and the cylinder bores machined to correct this problem.

Piston Rings

    Damage to the oil control ring on the piston can cause oil to migrate into the combustion chamber. Oil control rings installed on the bottom ring groove on each piston are comprised of a corrugated scraper ring sandwiched between a thin upper and lower ring. The oil control ring scrapes excess oil off the cylinder walls on each downward stroke of the piston, and returns the oil to the crankcase through holes in the oil control ring groove. Kia specifications call for a 0.008 to 0.028 inch ring end-gap for the oil control ring. Excessive end-gap or broken oil control ring components can allow oil to migrate into the combustion chamber. Replacement of the oil control rings is necessary to fix this problem. Oil control rings can also become stuck if the piston oil control ring groove becomes fouled with carbon particles or metal salt. Sticking rings will not conform to the cylinder shape and can allow oil to enter the combustion chamber. Have the engine disassembled, inspected and cleaned thoroughly to resolve a stuck ring problem.

Inspections

    Remove the valve cover and locate the valve guide seals on top of each valve guide. Inspect the rubber component around the valve stem for signs of looseness or deterioration. Have the valve guides checked for wear and replace the valve guide seals, or rebuild the top-end of the engine if it fails this inspection. Perform a compression test on each cylinder that is experiencing oil fouling. Normal compression on a 1999 Sportage is 164 psi and minimum compression is 114 psi. Compression below that can indicate excessively worn cylinder bores, cylinder wall damage or sticking valves. Have the lower-end of the engine rebuilt if you detect low compression and oil fouling in the same cylinder.

Sabtu, 12 Maret 2011

1994 Buick Lesabre Pcv Valve Troubleshooting

1994 Buick Lesabre Pcv Valve Troubleshooting

The Buick LeSabre was introduced in 1959. The 1994 Buick LeSabre came equipped with a 3.8-liter V-6, also known as the "3800 Series 1." The 1994 LeSabre was capable of producing 175 horsepower and 225 foot-pounds of torque. The positive crankcase ventilation valve is responsible for proper ventilation of the engine oil system. A faulty PCV valve can produce several symptoms, including poor fuel mileage, burning oil and even oil spray on the engine. The PCV valve is relatively easy to inspect and troubleshoot, as well as replace, if necessary.

Instructions

    1

    Open the hood of the LeSabre.

    2

    Remove the PCV valve from the valve cover located on the front of the engine, by pulling it out with your fingers. Pull the small breather tube off the outer end of the PCV valve by pulling the valve with one hand and the hose with the other.

    3

    Inspect the bottom PCV valve opening -- the valve cover side -- to make sure the valve is not stuck in the open position. Locate a small circular hole which is covered by a spring valve -- the hole should be closed if the PCV is removed from the car. If the valve hole is open, the PCV valve is bad. If the opening on the PCV valve is covered in oil and grit, or burnt black, the PCV valve needs to be replaced.

    4

    Shake the PCV valve up and down from end-to-end. If you do not hear a consistent rattle with each shake, then the inner parts of the PCV valve are jammed and the valve needs to be replaced.

    5

    Insert the tip of a small screwdriver into the bottom of the PCV valve. If you receive any resistance pushing the small circular cover into the valve, then the valve is sticking shut and it needs to be replaced.

Will a Clogged PCV Valve Cause an Oil Leak?

Will a Clogged PCV Valve Cause an Oil Leak?

The positive crankcase ventilation valve (PCV) is used to reduce the amount of emissions that a vehicle releases into the atmosphere. When the PCV valve becomes clogged, the engine can develop a number of problems, including an oil leak.

PCV Valve Operation

    During combustion, some amount of engine exhaust escapes around the piston rings instead of exiting through the exhaust valve. When the exhaust pressure inside the engine reaches a certain point, the PCV valve opens and returns the exhaust into the combustion chamber. Without a PCV system, the exhaust would be vented into the atmosphere without passing through the exhaust.

Clogged PCV Valve

    When a PCV valve stops working, pressure builds up inside the valve cover. This pressure can cause a number of problems for the engine, including an oil leak, particularly at the valve pan gasket. Clogged PCV valves may make an engine run poorly, decrease gas mileage and increase vehicle emissions.

PCV Valve Replacement

    Replacing a PCV valve on most vehicles does not require tools, though pliers can make the job easier. The valve simply slips out of its housing, and the hose attached to the valve is then slipped off. The new valve is then inserted into the housing and the hose reattached. If needed, engine oil can be used to lightly lubricate the valve to ease insertion.

The Check Engine Light Is on in My Kia Spectra

The Check Engine Light Is on in My Kia Spectra

Whether you are driving in rush hour traffic or down a rural road, there are few more unsettling sights on the dashboard than the "Check Engine" light -- because so many of the possibilities could be expensive ones. Some troubleshooting may help you decide to make your repairs at home -- but here are the possible reasons this light might come on in your Kia Spectra.

Gas Cap

    Believe it or not, one of the reasons your Kia Spectra's "Check Engine" light can come on is that you haven't screwed the gas cap on tightly enough. So, if there are no other signs of trouble from the engine, pull over, when convenient and safe, remove the gas cap and put it on again until you've heard several clicks. If this is the problem, you'll know it after you've turned the car off and on again three or four times. Don't do this while you're sitting on the side of the road; instead, watch the light as you run the rest of your errands. If you're on a long trip, stop every 10 minutes or so and start the engine again. If this is the problem, the light will turn off after several stops.

Oxygen Sensor

    In 2004 through 2006 models of the Kia Spectra, there is a common fault with the front oxygen sensor that will trip the "Check Engine" light. The problem has to do with non-functioning terminals inside the wiring. You'll need to take the car in to a mechanic to get this fixed.

EVAP System

    If you have a Kia Spectra that's equipped with an EVAP system, the "Check Engine" light may be a result of a leak in the system. The EVAP system is sensitive enough that, just having a loose gas cap can set it off. You may need to have your mechanic replace a hose or clamp in the EVAP system, or the whole cylinder may be at fault.

Engine Misfire

    If your engine is misfiring, you will want to get it taken care of as soon as possible. This is the most serious possibility when your "Check Engine" light appears. Misfiring can lead to damage throughout the engine that can make your repairs far more expensive than they would be if you take your car in after ruling out the gas cap as the problem.

Jumat, 11 Maret 2011

How to Check the Engine in an Infiniti G35

How to Check the Engine in an Infiniti G35

A diagnostic scanner is one of the most reliable ways to check an Infiniti G35's engine. The G35 uses a computer commonly called a Powertrain Control Module, which consistently monitors a sensors and functions within the engine. As soon as a malfunction or fault occurs, the computer assigns it a code. If the problem persists, the code becomes classified as "trouble" and your check engine light switches on. A diagnostic scanner can not only check for current trouble codes, but all other less frequent malfunctions.

Instructions

    1

    Connect a diagnostic cable to your OBD-II scanner, and then connect the cable to the Infinit G35's computer outlet. This port is commonly referred to as a Data Link Connector, and it can be found underneath the Infiniti's dash, near the hood release. It will not be covered, and you need no tools access it.

    2

    Turn the Infiniti G35's ignition key to the "On" position. Some diagnostic handhelds require not just the electronic system to be active, but the Infiniti's engine running.

    3

    Retrieve the codes by pressing the appropriate command buttons. OBD-II code readers and scanners all have different physical layouts with buttons located in different places. You will need to consult your handheld's user manual for the exact, appropriate procedure. If you own a preset scanner that automatically pulls OBD-II codes upon connection, then you need not worry about any of this.

    4

    Look at the codes on your screen. For the time being, you only need to be concerned with OBD-II codes that start with the letter "P." Those are powertrain codes. Also, look at how the your device distinguishes the codes. There should be an icon or some other indicator for "trouble" and "pending" code status.

    5

    Find the definitions and explanations for the OBD-II codes on your screen. Your Infiniti G35 will not have these within its pages. Generic OBD-II codes are used on all OBD-II compliant vehicles, and these will more than likely be found in your scanner's manual. If you cannot find them there, you can easily locate OBD-II codes online. Infiniti has a separate set of codes unique to their vehicles. Those are also not in your vehicle's manual, but they will likely not be in your scanner's manual. You will need to find this online, as well.

    6

    Compile a list of problems suggested by your Infiniti's computer, based on the coding definitions. Read over this list and consider your own level of expertise and experience. You are confident in your ability, open the Infiniti's hood and troubleshoot the engine in further detail. If the problems are beyond your capabilities, seriously consider driving the G35 to a repair shop.

Honda Accord Hybrid Fuel Injector Problems

Honda Accord Hybrid Fuel Injector Problems

The hybrid version of the Honda Accord was manufactured between 2005 and 2007. Fuel injectors help supply ample fuel to a car's engine. The Honda Accord Hybrid can experience engine problems related to improper care of its fuel injectors.

History of the Honda Accord Hybrid

    Honda positioned the Accord Hybrid as a high-performance, high-power vehicle that provided excellent fuel economy. Initial sales proved strong, but soon dwindled, prompting Honda to stop production in 2007.

Fuel Injector Problems

    A main symptom of fuel injector problems in the Honda Accord Hybrid is engine misfiring. In addition, engine hesitation occurs as a result of trouble with the fuel injectors. The check engine light may illuminate and record engine diagnostic codes. Diagnostic codes can be checked and interpreted by a trained auto technician.

Proper Fuel Injector Care and Maintenance

    Repeatedly using low-grade gasoline causes problems with the fuel injectors. It is recommended that a vehicle owner consult the manual for the minimum recommended gas grade. Replacement fuel injectors may experience problems if low-grade gasoline continues to be used. Replacement fuel injectors should not be installed with the previous injector seals.

How Do I Troubleshoot an Alternator for an HHR Turbo?

How Do I Troubleshoot an Alternator for an HHR Turbo?

The Chevrolet HHR Turbo was designed as a competitor to the Chrysler PT Cruiser. Although it didn't start off well, the HHR's continued improvements in design and performance (including side curtain airbags, greater stability and an estimated 32 miles per gallon) have made it a strong contender. If your HHR Turbo is showing signs of losing power or if you are having difficulty getting it to crank, the alternator may be weak.

Instructions

    1

    Raise the Chevy's hood and find the alternator (a round, belt-driven engine mechanism). Click one of the links in the "Reference" section for a picture of an alternator.

    2

    Inspect the alternator for damage. Corrosion, rust and broken pieces are all signs of trouble. Check the connections of the battery cables on the battery posts for poor fit or corrosive material. Clean the cable connectors and tighten the connections if they are loose.

    3

    Crank the engine and listen for noises coming from the alternator. The alternator should be silent. Noise may be a sign of broken internal mechanisms, shorted diodes or a bent pulley. Have the alternator looked at by a mechanic or a technician at an auto parts retailer.

    4

    Connect a voltmeter to the battery posts while the engine is running. Attach the positive test lead to the positive battery post, and then attach the negative lead to the negative battery post. The positive lead and post are red, and the negative lead and post are black.

    5

    Look at the reading on the voltmeter. A good, strong alternator will show a voltage measurement between 13.6 and 14.3 volts. Anything less means the alternator is not strong enough to charge the battery while the engine is running.

I Replaced the Spark Plugs on a 2005 F-150 and the Misfire Is Worse

I Replaced the Spark Plugs on a 2005 F-150 and the Misfire Is Worse

Spark plugs are kind of a calibrated malfunction, the precise waste of electrons in the name of igniting a volatile air/fuel mixture. Replacing the plugs every 130,000 miles the way Ford suggests is rarely a bad thing, unless you're dealing with a system on the verge of failure anyway.

Wrong Plug Gap

    Spark plugs are supposed to come from the factory with the proper gaps, but there are any number of reasons why they might not. First, that same spark plug may fit any number of different engines; gapping it correctly for one means that it may not work correctly for another. Second, spark plugs typically go into a big sorting bin before packaging, and even a slight smack to the ground strap can throw off the gap. Pull your plugs to recheck the gaps. They should be between 0.052 and 0.056 inch for the V-6 and 4.6-liter V-8, and 0.040 to 0.50 for the 5.4-liter V-8.

Loose or Corroded Connection

    Having the wrong plug gaps will make any engine misfire, but assuming it's the gaps leaves you with a question as to why it was misfiring in the first place. It could well be that you've sustained damaged or severe corrosion to one of the wiring harness plugs going to your ignition coils. The terminals may have corroded in such a way as to make slight contact before, but unplugging them might have broken that tenuous connection. The same goes for shorts in the wiring; it might have been tenuous before, but moving the coil completely broke the connection.

Damage to the Plug Boot

    Split rubber plug boots aren't uncommon, especially on engines that have seen a lot of miles. This is even true of coil-on-plug engines like the F-150's, where the plug boot itself is contained in a well in the cylinder head. Splits can happen for any number of reasons, but a small split is likely to grow far larger during coil removal and installation, when torquing forces on the boot can rip it in two. It could be that the original split was only large enough to cause a periodic misfire but that the boot ripped further during removal. Inspect the boots and use dielectric grease in the future to ward off sticking.

Bad Coil

    It's possible you had a bad coil to begin with, and that was what was causing your misfire. Ignition coils are like headlights; they tend to fade away more than they fail completely. A weak ignition coil would deliver inadequate power to the spark plug under the best of conditions. If the coil output doesn't completely engage the top of the plug, the already-weak spark will have to jump even farther to close the circuit. A well-functioning coil would have no problem jumping a millimeter-wide gap, but one weak enough to cause a slight misfire would.

Kamis, 10 Maret 2011

What Causes Losing Power Steering When Making a Turn?

What Causes Losing Power Steering When Making a Turn?

The automotive power steering system functions as a steering assist that lessens the amount of pressure applied to the steering wheel to turn and maneuver a vehicle. Hydraulic versions comprise the majority of power steering systems used in today's vehicles. A serpentine or single belt drives the power steering pump, which adds the needed pressure to turn the steering wheel easily. The causes for losing power steering during a turn involves checking the system and a few components.

Hydraulic Steering Fluid Level

    The reservoir used in hydraulic power steering has an upper limit fluid capacity that must be maintained to allow maximum fluid flow and correct pressure. If the lines, reservoir or pump have too low a fluid level, air can exist in the system, which decreases the pressure. Low hydraulic fluid level stops the pump from exerting the correct pressure, thus lowering the power assist. Loss of steering ease can result in a turn in either direction, particularly at low speed or idling conditions. A buzzing noise during a turn often denotes low fluid level. Topping off the reservoir solves this problem.

Hydraulic Power Steering Drive Belts

    Hydraulic power steering pumps are driven by serpentine or singular V-belts, which receive their power from the engine. If the belt slips from wear or contamination (oil or water), the pump efficiency lessens. With lessened power to the pump pulley, the steering wheel response can feel jerky or sluggish -- most prevalent at idle and low rpm, such as in a turn. Replacing or tightening the belt remedies this problem.

Hydraulic Pump Valve Blockage

    Hydraulic fluid that is old, has lost its lubricating and cooling properties or is contaminated can cause an intermittent power steering loss. Dirty pressure valves inside the pump can momentarily freeze or become clogged, disallowing enough pressure to turn the steering rack gear. A sporadic jerking of the steering wheel during a low rpm, hard-over turn in tight parking or parallel parking situations is a common occurrence. A flush and change of fluid remedies this problem.

Low RPM Hard-Over Turning

    If the engine idle is under manufacturer's recommended rpm specifications, or the engine is not tuned for correct performance, the power steering pump does not supply enough pressure for smooth turning. This frequently occurs during engine idle and hard-over turns during parking or very low-speed, sharp turns. The act of turning the wheel hard against the steering stops at idle and robs engine horsepower to drive the pump. This causes a sluggish or jerky response in the steering wheel, often accompanied by a howl or loud screech. Raising the engine rpm solves this problem.

Air Pockets

    Air pockets in the power steering system interrupt the flow of power steering fluid, momentarily decreasing the pump pressure. An improper system flush or a leak in the lines can introduce air, which causes a temporary blockage or open pocket in the fluid stream. The steering wheel may have a normal power-assisted response, then stop or sling back slightly. This condition primarily happens at idle and low-speed turns, but can happen at higher speeds if the air pocket is large. A power steering system fluid flush remedies this problem.

How to Check the Ignition Coil on a 2002 Mitsubishi Diamante

The Mitsubishi Diamante debuted in 1990. The 2002 Mitsubishi Diamante was equipped with a 2.5-liter V-6 engine that produced between 205 and 210 horsepower. The 2002 Diamante engine utilizes a distributor-type ignition system, which includes an ignition coil, as well as a distributor cap and rotor. The ignition coil can be tested using the primary or secondary winding tests; both these tests provide you with information on your Mitsubishi's ignition coil and whether or not the coil needs to be replaced.

Instructions

Ignition Coil's Primary Winding

    1

    Raise the hood of the Diamante and set the hood prop. Remove the negative cable from the battery, using an open-end wrench. Tuck the cable to the side of the battery so there is no chance of accidental contact.

    2

    Remove the electronic connector on the ignition coil by hand. The ignition coil is located on the upper passenger side of the engine.

    3

    Set the dial on the multimeter to ohms, which is the upside-down horseshoe-shaped selection. Insert the red probe from the multimeter on the far left prong on the ignition coil. There are seven prongs, numbered from 1 to 7 from left to right, when looking at the ignition coil. Insert the black probe onto the second prong from the left, which is prong No. 2. The resistance should be between 0.65 and 0.7 ohms. If the resistance is not within these specifications, replace the ignition coil.

    4

    Install the electrical connector if the test provides positive feedback on the ignition coil. Install the negative battery cable onto the battery and tighten it snug with an open-end wrench.

Ignition Coil's Secondary Winding

    5

    Raise the hood of the Diamante and set the hood prop. Remove the negative cable from the battery, using an open-end wrench. Tuck the cable to the side of the battery so there is no chance of accidental contact.

    6

    Set the dial on your multimeter to ohms, which is the upside-down horseshoe-shaped selection. Remove the electrical connector from the ignition coil by hand. Remove the ignition wire from the top of the ignition coil by hand. Remove the wire by the boot, rather than pulling the wire itself.

    7

    Install the red probe of your multimeter onto the top post or high voltage post of the ignition coil. Place the black probe onto prong "1" or "2" on the electrical connector end of the coil.The electronic connector prongs are numbered 1 to 7 from left to right, when looking at the connector. The resistance should be between 9,000 to 13,000 ohms. If the resistance on the secondary winding test is not within these specifications, replace the ignition coil.

    8

    Install the coil wire onto the coil by hand if the ignition coil test provides positive feedback about the coil. Install the electrical connector on the coil by hand. Install the negative battery cable onto the battery and tighten it snug with an open-end wrench.

Input Shaft Bearing Symptoms

Input Shaft Bearing Symptoms

Manual transmissions usually provide reliable service while requiring only basic maintenance. A gear box simply needs the proper type and amount of gear oil to be kept in good repair. Parts do wear over time, however, and the input shaft is in constant motion any time the engine is running. The input shaft bearing is prone to suffer oil starvation at slightly deficient oil levels, while other components may not be affected as seriously.

Neutral

    A worn or defective input shaft bearing can cause noisy operation in neutral with the engine running. The pitch or tone of the noise changes with engine speed and a slight vibration might be felt through the shifter. This symptom can also be caused by deficient gear oil levels or quality. Check and replenish the gear oil to eliminate this possibility as the origin of the noise, before condemning the input shaft bearing.

Gears

    Excessive and constant noise in all gears can also be caused by an input shaft bearing that is defective. The tone of the noise may change with engine speeds or torque demands. This symptom can also be produced by a defective output shaft bearing, except that the noise stops when the vehicle stops. The input shaft bearing noise continues as long as the engine runs, and the difference helps determine which bearing is at fault.

Mystery Shifts

    A severely worn input shaft bearing can cause the transmission to slip out of gear while moving. This symptom usually occurs just as the clutch is applied and is sometimes accompanied by a popping noise or sensation. The excess movement of the input shaft affects the alignment of the gear shafts, preventing complete engagement. The shifter seems to move by itself as forces from the misaligned transmission components act upon it.

Double Troubles

    Many causes can duplicate the symptoms of a bad input shaft bearing. Fresh gear oil might eliminate some symptoms, and shifter linkage adjustments may reduce or remedy others. Drive line noise can travel through the many components involved and frustrate attempts to pinpoint the problem. Intricate diagnosis techniques may be required to ascertain exact faults. Should doubts persist, consult a professional in order to prevent ineffective and costly repair attempts.

What Are the Dangers of a Bad Ball Joint?

What Are the Dangers of a Bad Ball Joint?

Ball joints are designed to keep your vehicle's tires flat against the road as the suspension travels up and down. One ball joint is placed on the farthest edge of both the upper and lower control arms. The ball joint connects the control arms to the steering knuckles on either side of the vehicle. Ball joints do go bad over time and must be replaced; otherwise, there may be safety issues.

Tire Wear

    A failed ball joint can allow the wheels to move in whatever direction inertia takes them, and they will stay in that position until inertia forces them somewhere else. When a tire rides on any section except the center, it causes uneven tire wear. A bad ball joint can lead to more frequent tire replacement.

Suspension Damage

    Ball joints can lock up at times. When a ball joint locks up, the movement that it absorbs does not go away. It has to be transferred to another component that is not intended to take that abuse. Typically, this movement is transferred to the control arm bushings. These bushings are made out of rubber, wear out very easily and are costly to replace.

Inspection Failure

    If you live in a state that requires an inspection of your vehicle every year, a bad ball joint can get you in trouble. No state will pass a vehicle with a faulty suspension component, such as a ball joint.

Breakage

    By far the worst that can happen, when driving on a bad ball joint, is breakage. The ball joint can break in two ways: the ball detaching from the socket and stud breakage. No matter the form of breakage, the end result is catastrophic. When the ball joint completely breaks, the wheel is free to move in any direction. Typically, the wheel will turn outwards, slam against the fender and drag the tire until the brakes are applied. If you are fortunate, the only damage you will cause is to the fender, tire and a few suspension components.