Senin, 30 April 2012

How to Troubleshoot the Lights on a Toyota Corolla

How to Troubleshoot the Lights on a Toyota Corolla

When any lights on your Toyota Corolla develop problems, whether it's the headlights, dome lights, dashboard lights or any other lighting, it can be unsettling and sometimes dangerous if you are driving at night. The source of the issue may require a simple fix or be a symptom of a larger problem. You don't need to be an automotive or electrical expert to do some basic troubleshooting of the problem. Many times you can resolve the issue yourself without having to take your car to a mechanic.

Instructions

    1

    Identify the nature of the problem, such as if the lights are dim or not coming on at all. Also identify if all lights are affected or if it's only one or a few lights. This helps determine the source of the problem.

    2

    Locate and test the lighting controls. On many Corolla models, the dashboard lights have a dimming knob. Ensure that the dimmer is turned up so that the lights are receiving power. This knob is usually located to the left of the steering wheel. Also, Corollas are sometimes equipped with a master switch for interior lighting, typically located on the center console. Ensure that the switch is set to the "On" position. For the exact locations of dimming knobs and on/off switches, refer to the owner's manual for your Corolla.

    3

    Check the overall power to the car. If other accessories in the car, such as the radio or windshield wipers, are not functioning or are exhibiting erratic behavior, the car's battery may be low or dead. Recharge or replace the battery if necessary. The battery in a Corolla is typically located directly behind the driver's side headlight in the engine compartment.

    4

    Examine the fuses. If one or more fuses are broken, certain lighting features will not receive power from the battery. The two primary fuse boxes in a Corolla are located under the dashboard on the driver's side to the left of the steering wheel, often behind a small door, as well as on the driver's side in the engine compartment, just behind the battery, inside a black covered box. To check the fuses, remove the cover or door and use fuse pullers to remove the fuse. If the metal connector inside the plastic is broken, the fuse must be replaced.

    5

    Check the integrity of the light bulb. If only one or two bulbs are not functioning and the fuse is intact, the light bulb may be burned out. Some bulbs may be difficult to remove based on their accessibility. If you can remove the bulb from the light socket, you can check to see if the filament is still intact. If you replace the light, ensure you obtain an exact model replacement. Check the owner's manual for your Corolla or contact your local Toyota dealer's service department to determine the model of the bulb.

    6

    Determine if the wiring leading to the light is conducting electricity. Connect the negative lead on the test light tool to the negative terminal on the car battery. Then connect the positive lead on the test light tool to the positive wire on the headlight wiring harness. If you are uncertain which wire is the positive wire, consult your owner's manual for the wiring diagram. If the light is receiving electricity, the light in the test light tool will glow. If the test light tool does not light up, there may be a problem in the wiring leading to the light.

Does Exchanging the Front Tires With the Back Ones Help if the Steering Wheel of My Car Trembles?

Rotating the front tires to the back axle may or may not stop the shaking that you feel in your car's steering wheel, depending on the condition of the back tires. There are also other causes for shaking or trembling.

Causes Of Trembling

    A tire on the front axle that is out of balance or has uneven tread wear will cause trembling in the steering wheel. An out-of-balance tire will have a heavy spot on it, which causes vibration when the vehicle reaches certain speeds.

Prevention/Solution

    The tires may be properly rotated, according to the rotation method needed for your vehicle, but the tires that are brought from the rear to the front should be balanced. If either of these tires is also out of balance, it will cause continued trembling in the steering wheel.

Trembling While Stopping

    If the steering wheel only trembles when you press on the brakes, the problem is with the brakes. This problem can be diagnosed by having a brake inspection.

How to Diagnose a Plugged Radiator

A plugged radiator causes the engine to overheat, because the coolant is not properly circulated through the radiator, and is therefore not cooled enough. Even if only a small spot in the radiator is blocked with calcium deposits or debris from oil leaking into the coolant system, the blockage affects the cooling capacity of the radiator. If you do not use coolant in the engine and radiator, rust from the engine could also clog the radiator.

Instructions

    1

    Start the engine and allow it to get to operating temperature.

    2

    Point the infrared thermometer at several spots on the radiator. The radiator should be the same temperature throughout, within a degree or two.

    3

    Continue taking the temperature of various spots on the radiator. If the temperature on the entire radiator is even, and the engine is not overheating, there is no blockage. If you find a spot that is several degrees cooler than the rest of the radiator, you have located the blockage.

Minggu, 29 April 2012

How to Troubleshoot Low Beam Lights on a 1990 Lincoln Town Car

How to Troubleshoot Low Beam Lights on a 1990 Lincoln Town Car

If the low beam headlights on your 1990 Lincoln Town Car begin to malfunction, they should be replaced as soon as possible to increase nighttime visibility and prevent against accidents. The low beam headlights on your Town Car have three main causes for malfunctioning. The electrical connectors could have potentially come loose, the low beam bulb may have burned out, or the headlamp fuse may have popped. Fixing any of these problems is simple and only requires a few minutes to do.

Instructions

    1

    Turn off the Lincoln Town Car's engine and open the hood. Put on a pair of latex gloves.

    2

    Open the access panel above the headlamp and lightly tug on the electrical connector at the rear of the headlamp. It should be securely connected to the headlamp assembly. If it is not, plug it in firmly. If the low beam headlights are still malfunctioning, the bulb may need to be replaced.

    3

    Remove the electrical connector by pulling it out of the assembly. Remove the retaining ring from the low beam bulb by rotating it counterclockwise. The low beam bulb is the top bulb on the headlamp assembly. Slide the ring off the bulb.

    4

    Pull the old bulb out of the assembly and push a replacement 9004-type bulb into the assembly. Slide the ring onto the new bulb and rotate it clockwise to secure it in place.

    5

    Reconnect the electrical connector and close the access panel. If the low beam headlights are still malfunctioning, the problem may be a broken fuse.

    6

    Remove the cover from the fuse box under the hood. Locate the number 12 fuse and inspect it. if the metal rod inside of the fuse is broken, it will have to be replaced.

    7

    Pull the old fuse out and replace it with a new 18A fuse. Place the cover back onto the fuse box and close the hood.

Sabtu, 28 April 2012

How to Use Fluke 87

How to Use Fluke 87

The Fluke 87 True RMS Multimeter is a portable multimeter that can measure frequencies between 0.5 HZ and 200 KHz. Although understanding the readings of any multimeter requires a degree of knowledge concerning electronics, those familiar with the basics of electrical testing, and those who know why and when to use a multimeter, should have no trouble operating the Fluke 87. Even if you are a novice, getting measurements using the Fluke 87 should pose no major problem.

Instructions

    1

    Insert the black and red leads into the appropriate input terminals. Which terminals you use will depend on what function you are performing, and the maximum voltage you will be working with. Most of the Fluke 87's functions require inserting the red lead into the "V" input terminal and the black lead into the "COM" input terminal. However, consult Table 2, on page 4, of the user's manual for a full listing of input terminal usage and voltage limits. A link to the user's manual can be found in the Resources section.

    2

    Turn the rotary switch to whichever function you plan on using. This will turn on the multimeter.

    3

    Press the "Min Max" button. Press the button again to scroll through the available options. This menu will allow you to set the minimum and maximum recording range. Failing to set the recording range properly may cause you to get incorrect results if the readings are too high or too low. When you have selected a min max level that you are happy with, hold down the "Min Max" button to exit.

    4

    Press the "Range" button. Press the button again to increase the increment being used. When you are happy with the increment being used, hold down the "Range" button to exit.

    5

    Touch the test lead probes to the contacts that you would like to measure. To measure voltage, connect the lead probes without breaking the circuit. This is known as taking a measurement "in parallel." to measure current, break the current between the two lead probes so that the current flows through the multimeter. This is known as taking a measurement "in series."

    6

    Read the measurements that are displayed on the Fluke 87's display screen.

2005 Dodge Caravan Doors Won't Lock

2005 Dodge Caravan Doors Won't Lock

Chrysler's 2005 Dodge Caravan was supplied with manual plunger-type locks, or power door locks which were electrically operated. The power door lock system features a function that automatically locks all of the doors. There is also an automatic unlock on exit function that unlocks the doors in certain circumstances. Problems locking the Caravan's doors can be related to these features. Lock issues can be corrected through troubleshooting.

Instructions

    1

    Remove the key from the ignition before pressing the power lock switch on the driver's side door trim if the doors won't lock. The doors won't lock with the key in the ignition switch. This is designed to stop you from accidentally locking your keys in the Caravan.

    2

    Enable the automatic door locking functionality if the doors don't lock when the transmission is in gear, all of the doors are closed and the vehicle's speed is above 18 mph. Enable it by closing all of the doors and inserting the ignition key. Cycle the switch on and off four times without starting the engine. End in the "Off" position.

    3

    Within 10 seconds, press the interior driver's door lock switch to "Lock." The automatic door locking function will be enabled.

Jumat, 27 April 2012

How is Freon Measured?

How is Freon Measured?

Freon works as the refrigerant in air conditioning systems. Because the chemical is under pressure, the typical way of measuring the amount of Freon is based on the pressure within the closed refrigeration system. Some gauges measure both the pressure as well as the temperature. The pressure lets you know if it is the proper range for the device and is considered the "charge" of the unit.

Instructions

    1

    Open the hood of your automobile and locate the air conditioning system. Your vehicle's manual tells you where in the engine compartment the AC unit lies.

    2

    Find the proper service fitting coming from the unit. If you are using a high-pressure gauge, attach the hose to the high-pressure outlet. If you are using a low-pressure gauge, fasten it to the low-pressure outlet.

    3

    Start your engine and turn the air conditioning to the maximum possible coolness and fan level.

    4

    Check the pressure level on the gauge. The low pressure ranges between 25 and 40 psi. A high-pressure gauge should range between 200 to 225 psi.

How to Troubleshoot for a Windshield Defroster

How to Troubleshoot for a Windshield Defroster

A windshield defroster is a very convenient device. It can help to eliminate fog, frost, or ice from the windshield without scraping, and even keep it from forming in most cases. If you suspect that your defroster is not working correctly, the best thing to do is follow a few simple troubleshooting steps to determine the cause of the problem. In most cases, it can be a fairly easy fix that you can perform yourself.

Instructions

    1

    Check the fuse for the defroster. Consult the owner's manual if necessary to determine the location of the fuse. Use a volt meter if possible to ensure that the fuse is working.

    2

    Replace the fuse by pulling it out with the fuse puller in your fuse box. Obtain a replacement fuse from an auto store and put the new fuse in place.

    3

    Inspect the wiring coming from the fuse box if possible, and repair any problems with electrical tape.

    4

    Inspect the wire going directly to the defroster. This is usually connected to a tab that can sometimes become disconnected.

    5

    Use window defroster tab adhesive to repair the connection tab. Follow the instructions in the kit, as they can vary.

    6

    Inspect the defroster grid lines for damage. Use a window defogger repair kit to repair the grid lines if necessary. Follow the instructions for the kit.

Common Causes of Hard Starting in a Chevrolet Silverado

Common Causes of Hard Starting in a Chevrolet Silverado

Hard starts occur in your Chevrolet's motor when the fuel mixture in the vehicle is too high and the initial explosion generated by the firing of the engine is larger than it needs to be. In some extreme cases, hard starting can damage a vehicle's engine in the form of an explosion. Backfiring is commonly caused by hard starting.

Fouled Spark Plugs

    Spark plugs are responsible for providing the actual spark that lights the fuel mixture in your vehicle and allows the engine to start and run efficiently. Spark plugs that are fouled by carbon or age can cause your Chevrolet to experience a hard start due to improper firing or multiple firing attempts.

Sensor and Electrical Problems

    Newer model vehicles are largely controlled by electronic systems and sensors. If a sensor is sending incorrect information to the powertrain control module, it can lead to a variety of starting problems, including hard starting caused by an improper fuel mixture or flawed delivery. This includes possible problems with your vehicle's fuel pump relay, which can cause fuel mixture and delivery issues, including too much fuel, to cause a hard start.

Bad Ignition Module

    The ignition module controls the way the ignition coils fire following your turning the key. If the ignition module does not allow the vehicle to generate enough of a spark to ignite, then it will have to try again and a hard start will probably occur due to built up fuel-mixture and gases.

Kamis, 26 April 2012

A Honda Element That Won't Start

Honda Elements tend to be reliable, so the most likely culprit for a non-starting Element is an electrical problem. Mechanical issues could be at fault, but a dead battery is far more likely. If proper maintenance intervals have been followed, it is even more likely that it is just a battery problem. A number of steps can be taken to fix a dead or dying battery and see if there are more serious issues preventing a Honda Element from starting.

Instructions

    1

    Try to start the Honda Element. Listen for chugging, which indicates the engine is turning over. If there is no chugging, look at the dashboard lights. If the lights do not come on, or if they are only flickering, the battery is dead or dying.

    2

    Turn the car off and inspect the car battery for foam. The battery is leaking acid if there is foam, and a tow truck is needed. A professional mechanicshould deal with the battery due to the possibility of acid burns. If there is no foam, strike the battery post clamps with a shoe, as the clamps may need to reconnect. Try starting the Honda. If it does not start, the battery either needs a jump or should be replaced.

    3

    Turn the Honda Element off and pop the hood. Park a functioning car hood to hood with the Honda. Open both hoods. Connect one end of the red jumper cable to the positive terminal on the Element and the other end to the positive terminal on the other car. Connect one end of the black cable to the negative terminal on the other car and the other end to a bare metal part of the Honda. Start the functioning car and let it idle for five minutes. Then start the Element. Let the Element run for half an hour to fully recharge the battery, or you can quickly burn out the alternator by driving and charging. If this does not work, your battery may be beyond revival and need to be replaced.

    4

    Replace the battery in the Honda by first turning off the car. Take off the battery post clamps by unscrewing the O-ring clamps with a flat-head screwdriver and remove the retaining clamps with the screwdriver. Pull the battery out by the handle and slide in the new battery. Screw down the retaining clamps and electrical clamps, being careful to not over-tighten the screws. Try to turn on the Element. If the car lights come on but the engine does not start, the engine may be flooded.

    5

    Enable the "Clear Flood" mode, which will clear a flooded engine. A flooded engine occurs when there is fuel on the spark plugs, which prevents them from sparking. To enable the Clear Flood mode, depress the accelerator all the way to the floor before repeatedly turning the ignition to the "On" position. This triggers the Clear Flood mode, which makes the engine pump air instead of fuel, thus drying the spark plugs. Do this for five minutes, take your foot off the pedal and turn the car off, taking the keys out of the ignition. After a minute, the Honda should start. If not, there may be mechanical problems necessitating a professional mechanic with diagnostic equipment to fix it.

Hyundai Elantra Clutch Problems

Hyundai Elantra Clutch Problems

The Hyundai Elantra, a compact car available in manual and automatic transmission, was introduced in 1990. According to Edmunds.com, the Elantra offers solid "performance and reliability," but second generation (1996 to 2000) models have been known to experience manual clutch problems.

Problem

    Hyundai technical service bulletins (TSBs) indicate that the manual clutch assembly is a common trouble spot in Hyundai Elantra models. A faulty clutch assembly will likely result in difficulty shifting gears and/or gearbox failure.

Warning Signs

    Although the clutch assembly may fail at any time, there are several warning signs. A failing clutch may exhibit shuddering and/or slippage. Additionally, the clutch may become difficult to depress, which may require extra force from the driver.

Solution

    Any leaks should be diagnosed and repaired prior to addressing the clutch assembly, because engine oil or transmission fluid leakage may damage the clutch. Replacing the clutch assembly usually consists of replacing the clutch disc, clutch pressure plate and the clutch release bearing.

Signs of a Bad Ball Joint in a Pickup Truck

Ball joints are an essential part of the chassis in any vehicle. These joints connect the part known as the steering knuckle to the control arms of the vehicle. They are necessary in order to steer the vehicle left and right and to maneuver around turns. The ball joint resembles the ball and socket joint of the bones in the human body so that the tires turn in correspondence with the operator turning the steering wheel in any direction. These joints also help the vehicle adjust to the surface of the road as it changes. There are a number of indications or signs that the ball joints in your pickup truck could be damaged in some way and need to be replaced.

Steering Problems

    Steering problems are one of the signs that the ball joints could be going bad in your pickup truck. You may notice difficulty in making the vehicle turn smoothly. You may also notice that these steering problems increase in severity as the ball joint becomes more and more worn out. If the ball joint breaks, you may not be able to steer your vehicle at all.

Tire Wear

    By paying attention to your tire wear, you can recognize signs of a ball joint going bad. A broken or damaged joint can cause your tires to wear unevenly. Although there are many possible problems that can cause this to happen with your vehicle, you should examine your ball joints to make sure this is not the underlying problem causing the tires to unevenly wear. This is especially true if you are experiencing both steering problems and tire wear.

Noises

    When a ball joint is going bad or is close to breaking, you may also notice unusual noises when the vehicle is being maneuvered around corners and through turns. The noises that you may hear that indicate a problem with broken or worn out ball joints include a clicking, popping or grinding sound when turning the vehicle. As the ball joint becomes more and more worn out, these noises will increase in severity.

Excessive Mileage

    Most auto mechanics recommend that you have the ball joints replaced every 70,000 to 150,000 miles. If you have put a lot of miles on your vehicle without having the ball joints changed, this -- coupled with the other indicators -- may be a good sign that the ball joints are bad. It is, of course, possible that ball joints could go bad before this time, so you should look for the other signs in order to keep your vehicle running as smoothly as possible. In order to avoid a severe problem occurring while driving the pickup, you should also have the ball joints checked during routine maintenance of the vehicle.

Rabu, 25 April 2012

Why Is the Low Coolant Light Flashing on My 2002 Pontiac Grand Prix?

The 2002 Pontiac Grand Prix is equipped with a sensor that is attached to the radiator that monitors the coolant level. If the coolant level drops below full, the sensor sends a signal to the computer that the coolant is low and the computer sends voltage to the low coolant indicator light on the instrument cluster to alert the driver that there may be a problem in the cooling system. The low coolant light is located on the instrument cluster just above the tachometer and illuminates yellow.

Low Coolant

    In general, if this light is illuminated or flashing it not only means the vehicle may be low in coolant, but that there also may be other serious problems in the cooling system. The cooling system is sealed and pressurized so the coolant level should never change with the exception of expansion, when the coolant begins to warm up during normal engine operation. If the coolant level is low, it may be because there is a leaking radiator hose or water pump, or that a gasket has failed somewhere in the engine and the vehicle is leaking coolant into the engine oil or combustion chamber.

Air in the Cooling System

    If the coolant level appears to be full, there may be air in the cooling system. Anytime the cooling system has been drained for any reason, air must be properly bled through the bleeder valve on top of the thermostat housing. If all the air has not been properly bled, air pockets can form throughout the cooling system, which could cause the low coolant sensor to falsely report low coolant and the computer will illuminate or flash the low coolant indicator. Bleed any air out of the cooling system and see if the light turns off.

Dirty or Old Coolant

    If the coolant becomes dirty, this can cause the sensor to give a false reading. When coolant is excessively old, it will begin to leave a brown film throughout the cooling system and this same brown film will also cover the coolant level sensor. The coolant level sensor warms itself and times how long it takes for it to cool back down; the brown film that has collected around the sensor as well as the dirty coolant will hamper the cooling of the sensor, which will cause the computer to flash or illuminate the low coolant light.

Faulty Coolant Level Sensor

    If the coolant level is full and any air has been properly bled from the coolant system, it is very likely that the coolant level sensor has become faulty and is falsely reporting a low coolant level. The best way to check if the coolant level sensor is faulty is to remove the pigtail that plugs into the harness (the sensor and hardness are located on the driver's side of the radiator near the battery) and turn the ignition key on. If the low coolant light no longer flashes or is no longer illuminated, then the sensor is bad. Replace the sensor with one from any local parts store.

Oil Contamination in Coolant

    In August 2004, General Motors released a technical service bulletin pertaining to the low coolant light always being illuminated on certain vehicles, including the 2002 Pontiac Grand Prix. This bulletin states that if the engine coolant becomes contaminated with oil, it will create a film on the coolant level sensor that would cause it to give a faulty reading. If there has not been any recent engine work, it is possible there may be a leaking gasket within the engine that is allowing engine oil to leak into the cooling system. This leaking gasket should be located and replaced followed by a full coolant system flush and cleaning of the coolant level sensor.

    The same bulletin also shows that the cooling system should not have any additives as they will also affect the coolant level sensor. If there have been any additives induced, the coolant system should be flushed. Once the system is flushed, the low coolant sensor should be removed and cleaned with a wire brush to remove any oil buildup or contamination.

Selasa, 24 April 2012

Symptoms of Worn Clutch Thrust Bearings

Symptoms of Worn Clutch Thrust Bearings

The clutch in an automobile is comprised of several components that must work in tandem in order for the clutch assembly to operate properly. The clutch assembly is the direct link between the engine and the transmission and is responsible for transferring power to the vehicle's rear wheels. As such, problems like a worn out clutch thrust bearing can produce pronounced symptoms that indicate service is required.

Noise

    A worn thrust bearing has increased clearances between its rollers. This allows the bearing to move around in its seat excessively, which can lead to rattling, squealing or growling noises coming from the transmission. These noises are usually most noticeable when the clutch pedal is pressed down to release the clutch.

Pedal Vibration/Pulsation

    When vibration is felt while the clutch pedal is being pressed down it can indicate a worn thrust bearing. While the pedal is being depressed, the worn bearing is unable to evenly distribute load on the clutch plate, which causes uneven contact with the pressure plate and the resulting vibration or pulsation is felt at the pedal.

Clutch Sticking

    Thrust bearings can lose their lubrication over time as they wear. This lack of lubrication can cause the bearing to move stiffly or bind, making it difficult to fully disengage the clutch during shifting. This can cause grinding directly due to the lack of lubrication in the bearing, and grinding from attempting to shift gears while the bearing is not releasing the clutch fully. The end result is difficulty getting the transmission to switch between gears.

Sabtu, 21 April 2012

Common 1995 Ford Taurus Transmission Problems

Common 1995 Ford Taurus Transmission Problems

The 1995 Ford Taurus has been recalled for six different problems, the brakes, speed control, frame structure and engine fan included. But none of the recalls has been for the transmission. There have, however, been some common complaints about transmission problems with this model year.

Transmission Fluid Leaking

    High use of transmission fluid has been traced to worn seals. The rear seal that goes to the drive shaft seems to be the prime suspect.

Transmission Failure

    According to Car Complaints, the 1995 Ford Taurus' most common transmission complaint has been failure of that system. The transmission reportedly begins to slip when shifting gears and then finally prevents the Taurus from moving at all. This problem has not been attributed to any one cause, but it requires the Ford Taurus owner to have the transmission completely rebuilt or replaced. Most of these complaints have not come from Taurus owners who bought the vehicle new in 1995 but from owners who bought the Taurus used and after it reached 60,000 miles or considerably more. One cause of the complete transmission failure is poor maintenance by owners.

Clogged Transmission Filter

    The transmission in every 1995 Ford Taurus has a filter that the transmission fluid is cycled through to prevent debris from reaching the transmission gears. Over time, debris from natural wear of the gears builds up in the transmission filter and clogs or damages it. A Taurus owner can determine if the transmission filter is clogged or allowing more debris to filter through by checking the transmission fluid dipstick. Metal can be seen on the end of the stick or the Taurus owner will see shiny objects in the fluid. This is a sign that the transmission filter needs to be replaced.

My PT Cruiser Won't Start

My PT Cruiser Won't Start

Electronics and vehicles are infuriating, at best, when they fail. When hitting the power button, turning a key, or flipping a switch, something is expected to happen. When nothing happens, it is frazzling, frustrating, and discouraging. Cars, specifically PT Cruisers, are part electronic, so they can and will succumb to problems and simply do nothing when the key turns. There are a few answers to why this happens. Some of these answers involve the electronics of the car; other answers involve connections under the hood.

Instructions

    1

    Check the battery. Locate the battery and then check if it has a factory-generated thermal wrap. Batteries will not start under extremely cold conditions, and the Cruiser seems to be particularly picky. Check the wiring between the battery and the starter. If this seems fine, the problem may be an internal short within the battery.

    2

    Check the oil. Batteries and starters depend on oil to keep the car from overheating. Cruisers tend to be notorious for leaking oil, so check the oil on a regular basis.

    3

    Check the radiator cap. User your owner's manual to locate the radiator cap. These tend to weaken in Cruisers, causing the car to overheat and fail to start. If the cap is loose or weak, replace it or simply tighten it. Check the radiator cap and oil cap after a visit to the mechanic's to ensure it has been reinstalled tightly.

Jumat, 20 April 2012

How to Check for a Bad or a Blown Head Gasket on a 1985 Dodge 2.2 Non-Turbo Engine

The 2.2 liter single overhead cam (SOHC) L4 engine was a common engine used in many Dodge models in 1985. A non turbo-charged version of the engine found service in the 600, Aries, Charger, Daytona, Lancer, Omni, Caravan and Mini-Ram Van models. A turbo version of this engine was also available in some of these models. As with any automobile engine, the condition of the head gasket can be diagnosed with a few simple checks that any vehicle owner can easily perform.

Instructions

    1

    Start the vehicle engine and watch for smoke from the exhaust pipe. A heavy, bluish smoke signifies that engine oil is leaking into the cylinders and this could be caused by a leaking head gasket. A thick, white smoke that persists even after the engine is warmed up, signifies that engine cooling fluid is leaking into the cylinders, typically indicating a head gasket leak.

    2

    Park the vehicle and open the hood. Locate the head gasket joint. This is the crack around the top of the engine where the cylinder head and engine block meet. Look for oil or cooling fluid leaks from this joint.

    3

    Allow the engine to cool down for an hour or so. Remove the radiator cap and examine the cooling fluid inside. It should have a greenish color and the fluid surface should be free from floating scum or foam. If the fluid is brownish and if you see oily scum and foam floating on the surface, then it means that oil is leaking through the head gasket into the coolant flow passages. Now start the engine and allow it to warm up until the thermostat opens and the coolant begins to circulate inside the radiator. Check the coolant for bubbles of engine exhaust gas. If you see bubbles, it means that exhaust gases from one or more of the cylinders is leaking through the head gasket into the coolant flow passages.

    4

    Turn the engine off. Remove the oil dip-stick and examine the oil on the end. There should be no evidence of light-colored foam. A beige or whitish foam indicates that cooling fluid is leaking through the engine head gasket into the oil flow passages. If you also see beaded water on the oil, this is a good indication that the head gasket has blown.

    5

    Assess the vehicle's performance. If the engine seems less powerful than before, or if the engine has started to run rough, it can mean that the head gasket is leaking. Remove the spark plugs one by one and examine them for signs of fouling. If all plugs are fouled it usually means the engine is not tuned properly, but if only one or two are fouled it can mean the head gasket is leaking around those cylinders.

What Is Considered a Bald Tire?

Like many other components on your car, tires usually wear out before they fail. Tire wear is a serious issue for those concerned about vehicle safety, since bald tires offer far less grip in the rain and are more likely to blow out at random.

Tire Wear

    Tires have three basic parts, the tread -- which touches the ground -- the sidewall that connects the tread to the rim and an inner layer of rubber that seals the air inside. When the tread wears down, it exposes the reinforcing bands underneath.

Tire Baldness

    Many drivers assume that if the tire still has visible tread depth and the reinforcing bands aren't visible, then the tire is still good. However, the Federal Motor Carriers Safety Administration says that 1/8-inch of tread is the safe limit for steering tires and 1/16-inch is the minimum allowable tread for non-steering tires. While that applies specifically to tractor-trailer tires, it's a safe rule for cars as well.

Uneven Wear

    A bald tire may be one without enough tread to function properly, but don't assume the tire is safe just because the tire still has some tread. Bad suspension alignment and improper tire pressure can cause the tire to wear more in one place than in another, eventually exposing the bands and causing the tire to fail. Catch these failures before they happen by periodically inspecting your tread to ensure it's wearing evenly.

The Signs of No Transmission Fluid

The Signs of No Transmission Fluid

Though you don't need to check your transmission fluid as often as you check your oil, times will undoubtedly arrive when you need to check your transmission fluid or add more. Over time, a problem arises with your transmission, your fluid can leak out and cause your transmission to run dry. Running out of transmission fluid can destroy your transmission and require expensive repairs. Several signs can point to little or no fluid in your transmission.

Sluggish Shifting

    If your transmission does not go into gear immediately after your put it in gear, your transmission may be low on fluid or out of fluid. you may experience a delay of several seconds in shifting or engaging. Failure to go into gear or shift properly indicates the need to check your fluid.

Puddles or Smoke

    Transmission fluid doesn't just disappear into thin air; it has to go somewhere when it leaves your transmission. A possible sign that you may not have any transmission fluid can occur when you start noticing puddles of a mysterious fluid underneath your car or truck. If the fluid isn't puddling, it is likely leaking out, landing on something hot such as the exhaust and burning off. If you notice a large amount of smoke coming from your vehicle and you can't determine the exact source, check your transmission fluid.

Clunks and Grinding

    If you can hear your transmission, check the fluid. Running low on or out of fluid can cause clunking and grinding noises when your transmission shifts gears.

Overheating

    In most newer vehicles, an error light will come on and inform you when your transmission starts overheating. You transmission may be out of fluid if your transmission starts overheating.

Failure to Shift

    If your transmission completely stops working, you may have run your transmission out of fluid and burned up the gears. If this scenario occurs, you must replace or rebuild your transmission---the worst-case scenario for transmissions. Your vehicle will not move if your transmission goes out.

How to Troubleshoot a 1988 Honda Accord Fuel Injector

How to Troubleshoot a 1988 Honda Accord Fuel Injector

Internal combustion engines function by putting an appropriate mixture of air and fuel into a combustion chamber and igniting the mixture with a spark. If any one of these factors are out of specification the engine may not run properly, or it may cease to run altogether. The fuel injectors receive a signal at a specified interval, determined by the Accord's ECU (electronic control unit), and open, allowing a specific amount of fuel into the cylinder. Troubleshooting a fuel injector is a vital part of diagnosing a no-start condition.

Instructions

    1

    Start the engine. Place the end of the stethoscope on the first injector. As it is opening and closing you should hear it clicking. Repeat this for all the injectors. If you find an injector that is not clicking it is faulty and will need to be replaced.

    2

    Disconnect the negative battery cable. Disconnect the electrical connector from the injector. Place the leads of an ohmmeter on each terminal of the injector and check the resistance.

    3

    Install the appropriate noid light on the wiring harness for the injector. Remove the coil wire from the distributor cap. Crank the engine. If the noid light is flashing quickly and is bright, the electrical signal is reaching the injector. If it does not flash there is a problem in the wiring or a component that sends the signal to the injector; possibly the ECU or a relay.

Rear Suspension Problems

Rear Suspension Problems

A car's suspension system consists of the various shock absorbers and springs that connect the chassis to the axles. Depending on the make and model of your car, the rear suspension may contain any number of specific parts that can wear-out or break.

Worn Shock Absorbers

    Shock absorbers help dampen vertical motion; they help release the energy built up in the car's springs. Worn rear-shocks can cause fluid leakage, bottoming out, excessive bouncing after coming to a stop and "clunking" noises over bumps.

Worn Struts

    Some of the larger components of a car's suspension system are the struts; these support the chassis while absorbing both horizontal and vertical shock. Symptoms of a worn rear-strut include abnormal rear-tire wear, abnormal vibration from the rear, rear "clunking" noises, excessive bouncing over bumps and oil leakage.

Worn/Broken Springs

    The springs are contained with the struts, and also support the chassis. If a rear spring is worn or broken, your vehicle will noticeably sag towards the side of the bad spring. This often leads to handling problems and an uncomfortable ride.

Worn/Loose Bushings

    Suspension bushings are essentially rubber discs that provide an extra layer of insulation from the bumps of the road. The most common signs of loose or worn rear bushings include excessive road noise and a rear "clunking" noise.

Kamis, 19 April 2012

1996 Honda Civic Ignition Coil Troubleshooting

1996 Honda Civic Ignition Coil Troubleshooting

The Honda Civic was introduced in 1973. The 1996 Honda Civic came equipped with a 1.6-liter in-line four-cylinder engine in the base model. The 1996 Civic was also available with two other versions of the 1.6-liter, known as the VTEC and the VTEC-E. The ignition coil on the 1996 Civic is responsible for sending the proper spark to the spark plugs. Hitachi and TEC both manufactured coils for the 1996 Civic. Testing procedures vary between the two different types of coils.

Instructions

    1

    Open the hood of the Civic, and set the hood prop. Remove the negative battery cable from the battery, using a 1/4-inch drive ratchet and socket to loosen the tie-down nut. Remove the two mounting screws from the ignition coil cover, with the ratchet and socket.

    2

    Inspect the ignition coil. If the black/yellow and the white/black wires are held on with screws, then you are working on a TEC ignition coil. If the wires are simple pull off and push on connectors similar to a speaker wire, then you are working on a Hitachi coil. Remove the two wires on a TEC ignition by simply pulling them off. Loosen the screws on the Hitachi version, then remove the wires. These are the A (positive) and B (Negative) wires for the coil.

    3

    Turn on your ohmmeter and set the dial to ohms, which is the upside-down "horseshoe" shaped selection. Insert the positive probe from the ohmmeter onto the A coil post. Insert the negative probe onto the B post. These posts are the primary windings. The primary windings on the TEC coil should have a resistance between 0.63 and 0.77 ohms. The Hitachi primary winding resistance should be between 0.45 and 0.55 ohms. If the reading on either type of coil does not fall within the given ranges, the coil needs to be replaced.

    4

    Test the secondary winding resistance of the ignition coil by removing the spark plug to coil wires. Set the wires apart from one another so you do not get them mixed up.

    5

    Attach the positive probe from your ohmmeter onto the post marked with a "+" symbol. Attach the negative probe to the post marked with a "-" symbol. The secondary winding reading on the TEC coil should be between 12.8 and 19.2 ohms, while the Hitachi should be between 22.4 and 33.6 ohms. If the ohmmeter readings are not within the given specifications for either coil, the coil needs to be replaced. If either type of coil test provides positive results, proceed to testing the spark plug wires and the ignition control module.

    6

    Reassemble the coil and install the cover in the reverse manner in which you removed the parts. No torque is needed on any part of the coil, and adding torque can break the coil or its associated parts. Install the battery cable and tighten the cable until it is snug. Turn the cable tie down nut a half turn farther to acquire the 9 foot-pounds necessary for proper torque.

Problems With Toyota Cooling Fans

Problems With Toyota Cooling Fans

A Toyota's coolant temperature is regulated by many electrical and mechanical components. One of the more important components is the cooling fan. The fan lowers the coolant temperature after the coolant has finished its cycle through the engine.

Motor

    A Toyota's cooling fan is powered by an electric motor. As the motor ages, the circuitry can fail, causing the motor to malfunction. This leads to the fan not operating properly or not at all.

Temperature Sensor

    The Toyota's fan only turns on when the coolant reaches a certain temperature, which is measured by a sensor. This sensor switches the cooling fan off and on as needed. A failed sensor can cause the fan to run excessively or not run when cooling is needed.

Relay

    The cooling fan in a Toyota has a relay to regulate when power is provided to the fan. When this relay goes bad -- due to coil failure or excessive resistance -- the fan cannot receive its prescribed amount of electricity and will either work slowly or not at all.

How to Know if Fuel Pumps Went Out

Most vehicles on the road today come with an electric fuel pump installed. The fuel pump sits inside the gas tank of the vehicle and takes fuel from the tank and pushes it into the fuel lines. Because it can be difficult to get to the fuel pump in the event that you need to replace it, you should troubleshoot the pump first to know whether it has gone out or another component of the vehicle's fuel system needs to be replaced.

Instructions

    1

    Listen for the fuel pump to engage as soon as the vehicle's battery is turned on. While you are sitting in the driver's seat of the vehicle, insert the ignition key into the ignition and turn it one setting to the right so that the battery is on but the vehicle's engine is not. As soon as the battery is on, the fuel pump should engage and begin sending fuel through the fuel lines of the vehicle. If you do not hear the pump working, you should replace it. Conduct this test in a quiet place or enlist the help of a second person who can listen for the pump while you turn the ignition key.

    2

    Watch for signs from your vehicle that the fuel pump is failing. Two important indicators are when your engine won't start, or it stalls when you try to accelerate while driving.

    3

    Look at what the current fuel pressure is for your vehicle. Take a fuel pressure gauge and connect it to your vehicle's Schrader valve. The valve is normally situated near the top of the engine and looks very similar to a bicycle or car tire air valve. Once the fuel pressure gauge is connected to the valve, start the engine and let it idle. Read the gauge to see what the current fuel pressure is. Compare that to the manufacturer's specifications to determine if the pressure is too low. You can find the manufacturer's specifications for the proper fuel pressure range from an auto repair guide or by calling your local dealership.

    4

    Make sure that your fuel pressure regulator is functioning properly. When your vehicle has a low fuel pressure, reading the fuel pressure regulator may be causing the problem instead of a bad fuel pump. The regulator can generally be found near the Schrader valve. It has a black fuel hose running from it. Keep the fuel pressure gauge connected to the Schrader valve and turn the engine on so that it is idling. Use a set of pliers to softly squeeze the fuel line connected to the regulator and watch the fuel pressure gauge. If the gauge shows the fuel pressure going up, the regulator is the cause of the low pressure and should be fixed.

How to Troubleshoot a P0171 Engine Code

How to Troubleshoot a P0171 Engine Code

Diagnostic trouble code "P0171" indicates that bank one of the system is running lean. A lean condition occurs when the ratio of fuel to air in the combustion chamber of the engine has too much air. The most cause of this code is a vacuum leak, a dirty mass airflow sensor (MAF) and a faulty O2 Sensor. Pinpointing the exact cause takes the skillful use of an automotive scan tool that has the capability to read data from the on-board computer.

Instructions

    1

    Attach the scan tool and start the engine. Allow the engine to run to operating temperature. With the engine running, visually inspect the engine for obvious vacuum leaks. Listen for hissing, which indicates a vacuum leak especially on bank 1. Bank 1 is the side of the engine that has the No. 1 spark plug. Refer to your service manual for this information.

    2

    Attach your scan tool and enter the data stream diagnostic mode. Observe O2 sensor data, and MAF sensor data. Remove a vacuum line from the engine while observing the O2 sensor for a change. It should momentarily read leanmore than 1/2 voltand then settle into its normal switching mode. If the sensor stays lean, replace the sensor. This is called a lazy O2 sensor and is a common cause for code P0171.

    3

    Observe the MAF sensor data. Remove the MAF sensor from the sensor housing in the intake duct or air filter housing, using a T-15 Torx driver. Clean the MAF sensor, using MAF sensor cleaner spray. Reinstall the MAF sensor and start the engine. Observe the MAF sensor data for a change in sensor reading. A dirty MAF sensor is also a common cause of a code P0171 and is usually fixed by cleaning it. If vacuum leaks and O2 sensors have been eliminated as the actual cause and cleaning the MAF doesn't fix the problem, replace the MAF sensor.

Rabu, 18 April 2012

How to Troubleshoot a '97 Saturn Car

How to Troubleshoot a '97 Saturn Car

Founded in 1985, Saturn was a manufacturer of motor cars that were known for their plastic composite body panels. The company was a subsidiary of General Motors and remained in production until October 31, 2010 when the company was closed as part of a General Motors financial restructuring. Just like any other mechanical product, the 1997 Saturn car can from time to time run rough or not at all. When this happens there are few things you can do at home before taking it to a mechanic.

Instructions

    1

    Insert the key for your 1997 Saturn and turn it to the position that turns on the electrical accessories for the car. Observe whether the radio, lights and other electrical systems such as the fan and headlights all come on.

    2

    Pull the hood-release lever and lift the front hood that covers the engine bay. Locate and inspect the car's battery. If the battery cables and connections are covered in corrosion, loosen the battery cable connections with a small wrench and remove the cables from the battery. Clean the battery connections and battery cables with a wire brush to remove the corrosion. Follow the cables back to the starter motor and solenoid, inspect the connections there to see if the any corrosion is visible on the connections. If so, clean the connection the same way you cleaned the battery.

    3

    Insert the key into the ignition see if the engine comes to life. If it does not, and you hear a clicking noise, then the Saturn's starter motor likely needs to be replaced or serviced. If the engine turns but will not start, there may be a problem with the spark plugs.

    4

    Open the engine compartment and disconnect the spark-plug wires and remove the spark plugs using a spark-plug wrench. Use a wire brush to clean the bottom of the spark plug. Replace the spark plugs in the engine and reconnect the spark-plug wires.

    5

    Remove and replace the fuel and air filters in the 1997 Saturn. Internal combustion engines must have the proper mixture of fuel and air in order to run correctly. If a plugged filter is preventing the correct amount of air or fuel from reaching the engine, this may cause some starting problems.

How to Troubleshoot a 1998 Grand Cherokee Transmission

How to Troubleshoot a 1998 Grand Cherokee Transmission

One of the most easily recognizable SUVs on the market is the Jeep Grand Cherokee. By design, the automatic transmission within a 1998 Jeep Grand Cherokee transfers power from the engine to the drive wheels. This design makes the Grand Cherokee easier to drive, but nothing is perfect, so here and there problems may arise within your Jeep's transmission. Luckily these problems can be repaired by a transmission specialist, but you'll save yourself time and money if you've been able to troubleshoot any problems yourself.

Instructions

    1

    Lift the hood and withdraw the transmission dipstick. Clean the end of the dipstick with a rag and replace it. Remove it and inspect the marks on the end of the stick. The oil level must be between the upper and lower marks.

    2

    Turn the Jeep on and shift it into neutral. Have a friend or assistant observe the ground beneath the Jeep for any dripping fluid from the front of the engine. Dripping fluid will be an indication that there is a leak in one of the transmission seals. Any transmission repair shop will be able to fix this.

    3

    Put the Jeep into drive while the engine is still running. Any jerking or lurching means you need to check the transmission fluid. If the fluid levels appear to be in order, it's likely that there is internal damage in your Jeep. This may have happened for a variety of reasons. In particular, because the Jeep is traditionally used for "heavy duty" applications and towing, the transmission may have been damaged if you ever exceeded the towing weight for the vehicle. All too often people try to use the Jeep in the same capacity as a pickup truck, which may have damaged the gears. Unfortunately, you will have to have the transmission rebuilt if the gears have been damaged.

Selasa, 17 April 2012

How to Repair Rusted Gas Tanks

How to Repair Rusted Gas Tanks

If the gas tank of an automobile is not cleaned properly and kept full, it will develop rust. Over time, a tank corrodes from water condensation that is caused by temperature changes inside the tank. However, if the tank is kept full there is no space for the air and moisture to cause condensation and corrode or rust. Failing to clean the gas tank before driving the vehicle can result in serious problems, including engine damage. The process of removing rust from a gas tank is fairly simple once the tank is removed from the vehicle.

Instructions

Repair Using Toilet Bowl Cleaner

    1

    Detach the gas tank from the vehicle. Open the gas tank lid and use a strainer to filter the fuel into an empty container for later use.

    2

    Pour two bottles of toilet bowl cleaner into the gas tank. Shake the tank few times so that the cleaner coats the inside of the tank properly.

    3

    Allow the cleaner to sit in the tank for about 12 hours. Fill the tank with water and pour off the contents.

    4

    Refill the tank with water again and add two tablespoons dish soap. Shake the tank and repeat the step twice more.

    5

    Dump all the contents out and blow warm air from the hair dryer to dry the inside of the tank.

    6

    Use a flashlight to check if the rust is completely removed from the inside of the gas tank and there it no remaining sludge, particulates or debris. If not repeat the steps procedure.

Repair Using Rust Remover

    7

    Detach the gas tank from the vehicle. Use a strainer to filter the existing fuel into an empty container for later use.

    8

    Boil water and add two tablespoons of dish soap and pour it inside the gas tank. Shake well and dump the contents out.

    9

    Refill the tank with water and move it around to ensure all dirt, debris and residue has been dumped out. Repeat the process twice more.

    10

    Dry the gas tank using a hair dryer and seal the opening with duct tape.

    11

    Pour a gallon of rust remover for a small tank and up to five gallons for a tank holding up to 25 gallons. Seal the opening with duct tape.

    12

    Shake the rust remover around the gas tank. Shake the gas tank again after three to four hours. Repeat this step five times.

    13

    Pour out the rust remover through a strainer in a container so that it can be reused later.

    14

    Pour water inside the gas tank and rinse it completely.

    15

    Use the hair dryer to dry out the gas tank. Once done, reattach the gas tank to the vehicle.

Senin, 16 April 2012

What Is a Reason an Engine Light Would Come on in a 1998 Oldsmobile Cutlass?

A diagnostic sensor network that monitors the vehicle's triggers the warning light when a reading falls outside its normal range. The computer that monitors the sensors also captures a code identifying the location of the fault.

History

    Computer monitoring with on-board diagnostic computers (OBD) began in the 1980s. In 1990, the federal Clean Air Act mandated that any vehicle sold after 1995 come equipped with an OBD system using standard trouble codes. The industry calls the system on-board diagnostic, generation 2 (OBD-II). Small devices called code scanners can read the codes used in OBD-II computers.

Malfunction Indicator

    The OBD-II diagnostic system continually monitors an array of sensors. If a sensor reading falls outside its normal range, the OBD computer turns on the "Check Engine" light and stores a code in its memory. For post-1995 Cutlasses, you can read this OBD-II code with a scanner.

Meaning

    The appearance of a "Check Engine" light is a warning that you need to service your Cutlass as soon as possible. Consult your owner's manual for any specific instructions. Without using a scanner to read the OBD-II code, you cannot determine the vehicle's problem or its severity.

The Reasons for Blow-By on a Chevy

The Reasons for Blow-By on a Chevy

Blow-by is a term used to describe what happens when the compression in an engine forces oil past the rings and into the crank case. Blow-by can cause a loss of horsepower and contaminate the oil in your Chevrolet car or truck. Properly maintaining your engine during your vehicle's lifetime can help prevent blow-by from occurring.

PCV Valve

    The Positive Crankcase Ventilation valve is designed to vent excess pressure out of your engine and valve cover areas. PCV valves have to be periodically serviced and replaced, or they will become blocked. If your Chevrolet's PCV valve quits functioning, pressure is building up in your engine with no way to escape. When enough pressure builds up, it may force oil and air out in the form of blow-by.

Engine Wear

    Engines and their various components wear out due to time and use. The rings, cylinders and pistons in your Chevrolet's motor are no exception. When the rings reach a certain point of wear, the seal will weaken and fuel mixture will leak out into the crank case, where pressure will build up and eventually cause the blow-by. This can also be caused by worn-out cylinders or flawed pistons.

Pressure

    The bottom line on engine blow-by is that it is caused by pressure. Any time more pressure builds up inside your engine or valve areas than it can release, the pressure is forced through the weakest point of your engine and causes blow-by.

    If your Chevrolet is a diesel model, some blow-by will be normal, but excessive pressure will lead to higher levels of blow-by.

Jumat, 13 April 2012

91 Nissan 3.0 Troubleshooting

91 Nissan 3.0 Troubleshooting

The 1991 Nissan 3.0 is a V-6 installed in the Pathfinder sport utility vehicle. It engine is relatively easy to troubleshoot for owners with basic mechanical knowledge. It does not have engine performance sensors and an electronic reader is not necessary for troubleshooting. The Pathfinder has ample room in the engine compartment for viewing and locating different parts and it has enough clearance for inspecting under it. The engine does have some common issues that will help simplify the troubleshooting process.

Instructions

    1

    Turn the key and attempt to start the engine. If it won't start, charge the battery with a trickle charger and start the engine. Replace the battery if it does not hold the charge. If the battery is charged and the engine experiences power loss, test the alternator with a voltage meter. Replace the alternator if it does not supply power.

    2

    Test the starter solenoid if the battery has power but the engine won't start. Tap the starter solenoid with a hammer as temporary solution, but eventually it must be removed with a socket wrench and tested by a professional. The starter is located on the bottom side of the engine.

    3

    Turn the key and lightly hit the gas pedal. If the engine cranks but does not start or requires excessive gas to start, the fuel injectors are failing. The six injectors are a common failing point on the Nissan 3.0 and they commonly require replacement. The engine may also require new spark plugs.

    4

    Drive the car to test the engine performance. Vary the speed and check for power surging and sputtering. If the engine does not have smooth power transitions, the fuel pump may be failing. The fuel injectors may also be dirty and clogged.

    5

    List for squealing when you start the engine and also when making sharp turns. Check the belts and replace if they are frayed. If the belts are good, use a crescent wrench to tighten them and eliminate the noise.

How to Fix the Dash Lights on a 1994 Nissan Sentra

How to Fix the Dash Lights on a 1994 Nissan Sentra

Vehicles over 15-years-old can often manifest a number of electrical problems. If the dash lights on your 1994 Nissan Sentra begin to fail you must look to replace them. Driving with broken dash lights is not only dangerous for you but other drivers. You can pick up replacement bulbs for your instrument panel at your local auto store.

Instructions

    1

    Raise the hood of your Nissan and locate the battery pack. Disconnect both the positive and negative terminals. Use pliers to carefully pull them off their terminals.

    2

    Sit on the drivers seat of the vehicle and lower the steering wheel. You should move it to its lowest possible position to give you easy access to the instrument panel.

    3

    Use a screwdriver to remove the screws which hold the bezel in place around the instrument panel. There should be two screws to remove.

    4

    Remove the three mounting screws which attach the instrument panel to the dashboard. Slide the instrument panel slowly out of the dash. Slide your hand around the back of the panel and remove the electrical connector. If you are struggling to remove it with your hand, use a flat-head screwdriver to pry it loose. Lift the instrument panel out and place it on a flat work surface.

    5

    Unscrew the broken dash lights and discard them in the trash. Screw in the new bulbs in a clockwise direction until you can no longer turn them any further. This will ensure they are firmly locked in place.

    6

    Reattach the instrument panel and the bezel to the dashboard following the removal steps in reverse. Attach the battery terminals under the hood and turn the key to the auxiliary position to check that the dash lights now work correctly.

Chevy S10 Transmission Problems

Troubleshooting any issues with your Chevy S10's transmission should be done immediately when the problem develops. A lot of the time, many transmission problems, including noise and shifting issues, can be solved by simply swapping out the worn transmission fluid for a high-quality, synthetic replacement.

Clutch

    If your Chevy S10 is equipped with a manual transmission, a common malfunction is clutch wear. This happens when the clutch plate wears down over time, not allowing a proper connection between the engine and transmission. Signs of a slipping clutch are inconsistent clutch pedal feel, clutch slippage upon acceleration or a burnt plastic smell from worn clutch components after normal driving.

Synchronizers

    The Chevy S10 transmission features gear synchronizers, which match the speeds of different gears between shifts, allowing for a smooth operation of the transmission. Worn synchronizers may lead to harsh shifts or gear grinding. Excessive transmission whine under acceleration is another sign of worn synchronizers.

Cylinders

    The Chevy S10 features a hydraulic transmission. Hydraulic transmissions incorporate a hydraulic fluid system to operate the clutch assembly. Malfunctioning clutch hydraulic cylinders will not hold adequate pressure, and may leak clutch fluid. This can lead to a soft and inconsistent clutch pedal feel, as well as improper clutch disengagement when pushing in the clutch pedal.

Kamis, 12 April 2012

How to Use Snap-On Vantage

When trying to figure out what is wrong with a car or truck, it can take a long time to isolate the one tiny part that is causing the entire system to fail. The Snap-On Vantage is a graphing meter that you can use to test most parts in your vehicle to tell if they are getting power and how much power they are getting.

Instructions

    1

    Press and hold the "Power" button on the Vantage for a few seconds until you hear the unit beep. Release the button and the screen will turn on and the home screen will load. Tap the "Component Test" option on the home screen and then select the "New Vehicle ID" option.

    2

    Select "U.S. Domestic" or "U.S. Import" on the screen that appears. Next, tap on the manufacturer of the vehicle you are testing. Tap the model of vehicle on the list that appears and then tap the year of the car on which you are working. A confirmation screen will appear with the information you just entered. Press "Y" to continue.

    3

    Tap the "Component Test" option from the main menu and then tap "Component Test" again. A list of components on the vehicle that can be tested will appear on the screen. Tap on the component you want to test. Select the "Test" option on the next menu to bring up a list of available tests. Choose the test you want to run on the component.

    4

    Read and follow the instructions that appear on the screen on connecting the test leads from the instrument to the vehicle to test the component. Once the leads are setup, tap on the "Test Procedure" window to view instructions for performing the specific test. When you complete the procedure, the results will appear on the screen.

How to Troubleshoot 1996 Chevy K2500 Pickups

The 1996 Chevrolet Silverado K2500 came equipped with a 5.0-liter, eight-cylinder engine. It also included many different standard features including a driver's front airbag, a chrome step bumper, 16-inch wheels, cruise control, power steering, a tilt steering wheel, air conditioning, four-wheel anti-lock brakes, power exterior mirrors, power windows, power door locks and a front split bench seat. Because the K2500 truck is made up of so many different systems, it can be tough to properly troubleshoot a problem with the vehicle. Two methods to troubleshoot the truck include examining manufacturer recall information and checking general repair details.

Instructions

    1

    Examine the oil filter of the K2500 truck if you see oil leaking underneath the engine or if you have experienced an engine fire while the truck was driving. You may have a Fram Racing oil filter installed in the engine. These oil filters begin to warp and become more pliable under high temperatures and pressures, which can cause inadequate sealing and loss of engine oil that may start an engine fire in the truck. You should replace the oil filter to resolve this problem.

    2

    Inspect the truck's fuel filter when you see a fuel leak under the truck. The truck may have an aftermarket fuel filter installed on it that was manufactured by Fram. The fuel filter was not manufactured to Chevrolet's specifications and can cause the fuel system's O-ring to not seal correctly on the fuel line. As a result, fuel can leak out from the fuel line and, in the presence of an ignition source, start a fire. Replace the entire fuel filter to fix this issue.

    3

    Check the air filter when the K2500's engine idle is rough or erratic right after the engine is started. The air filter may be clogged or dirty. You should also examine the spark plugs to determine if any of them are incorrectly gapped or fouled, or if the electrical wiring of the truck is worn, damaged or faulty.

    4

    Look at the air filter, fuel filter and PCV valve when the truck is difficult to start. These components may be clogged or dirty. Look also at the choke thermostat to see if it is stuck or has malfunctioned. The EGR valve could also be faulty, the carburetor may be flooded, exhaust valves could be sticking and PCV hoses may be collapsed.

1997 Dodge Caravan Won't Start

1997 Dodge Caravan Won't Start

The Caravan is manufactured and sold under the Dodge brand name which is owned and operated by Chrysler Group LLC. The Caravan is a minivan that is boasted as a superb family vehicle because of it's family friendly design and safety ratings. Just as with any vehicle, you may have trouble starting your 1997 Dodge Caravan at times. Before calling in a professional mechanic, which will cost you money and time, there are a few things that you can check yourself to troubleshoot the problem.

Instructions

    1

    Place your key in the ignition of your Caravan and attempt to turn it. The key may not turn if the steering column is in a certain position causing a lock to be placed on the ignition switch. To unlock it, turn the steering wheel to the left and right. It may click into place. If not wiggle the key in the ignition while turning the steering wheel. Once it is in the correct position, the key will turn.

    2

    Verify that the Dodge's battery does not need to be replaced, charged or jump started. Turn the key in the ignition to the "Accessories" position, where the electronic aspects of the vehicle will work without the engine running. Turn on the head lights or interior lights. If they do not light up, there is likely a problem with the battery.

    3

    Check to be sure there is enough fuel in the fuel tank for the engine to start. If you are unsure how much fuel is in the vehicle or you know that the fuel is low or empty, add a gallon of the appropriate fuel to that tank and try to start the engine again. If the fuel tank is low or empty, the engine may not start or may start briefly but shut off.

    4

    Attempt to start the engine and listen for any sounds that may indicate the problem with your Dodge Caravan. No sound at all when attempting to start the engine could mean that the ignition switch is not working properly. Clicking sounds can mean the ignition switch is working, but the starter is not. If the vehicle starts briefly but does not stay on, there may be a problem with the fueling system.

    5

    Check the fluids in your Caravan. Pull the lever that opens the hood and locate the oil and coolant dipsticks. Pull each one out, checking to be sure that they are filled to at least the minimum fill line. If they are not, add the appropriate type and amount of fluids to the vehicle and try to start the engine again. Low or empty fluids can cause damage to the engine or problems with the engine starting.

    6

    Contact an auto mechanic or have your 1997 Dodge Caravan towed to a garage or Dodge dealership. Your Dodge dealership should be able to diagnosis and repair any problems with your older model Caravan.

Technical Tips for Oil Pump Failure

Technical Tips for Oil Pump Failure

Oil pumps ensure that oil circulates within an engine to lubricate the engine's internal components. If an oil pump in a car or truck fails, the engine can be permanently damaged by problems caused from the loss of lubrication. It is important to understand how an oil pump functions and the signs of oil pump failure so that you can prevent serious damage from occurring to your vehicle's motor.

Oil Pump Failure Symptoms

    There are several symptoms a vehicle may exhibit that indicate oil pump failure. These symptoms include whining from the oil pump itself, knocking or tapping from the engine's lifters or rods due to a lack of lubrication, engine overheating and a loss of engine compression. A vehicle's oil pump should be checked thoroughly if the vehicle is exhibiting any of these symptoms.

Oil Levels

    The oil pump may have failed if the engine oil dipstick shows that the engine has plenty of oil, but the vehicle is showing low oil pressure on the gauges. If the dipstick does not show full, add oil until it reads full, then run the vehicle for several minutes to see if the engine pressure goes back up. If it does not, oil is not reaching the engine and the pump is failing.

Necessary Oil Pressure

    Most engines need 10 PSI of oil pressure for every 1,000 rpms that the engine is producing. Engines used for racing or heavy towing will need more oil pressure than engines that only perform relatively light duty. Overworking an engine can lead to excess wear on the oil pump and cause problems over the lifetime of the engine.

Error Codes

    Problems with engine oil or an oil pump will cause the vehicle's check engine light to come on. You can scan the car's computer for error codes to determine if the oil pump is the problem, or if you need to look elsewhere in the engine.

Rabu, 11 April 2012

How to Troubleshoot a 1992 Ford Ranger Engine Code

How to Troubleshoot a 1992 Ford Ranger Engine Code

Troubleshooting an engine code means pulling that code from the computer system and tracking down the source of the problem, using the clues from the code. For instance, Code 59 means "automatic transmission shift error." From that, you can tell the transmission is having trouble. Your first step might be to check the transmission fluid and have it changed if it's past its scheduled maintenance. Check the link in Resources for a full list of 1992 Ford codes and what each means.

Instructions

    1

    Identify the Assembly Line Diagnostic Link (ALDL) or test port under the hood near the battery on the Ranger. It is an eight-port electrical link where the OBD scanner plugs into initiate the diagnostic sequence.

    2

    Connect the scan device to the ALDL port and turn on the scanner.

    3

    Turn the ignition "On," but don't start the engine. Enter your vehicle's information in the scanner in response to the prompts and select the option to pull the trouble codes.

    4

    Write down the codes as they appear. Refer to your owner's or service manual for the code meanings.

    5

    Address the source of the trouble code. For instance, if the code indicates a too-rich oxygen/fuel ratio, it's usually the oxygen sensor. Fix the suspected component.

    6

    Connect the scanner again, pull the codes and select the option to clear the codes.

Vibration in the Steering Wheel of a 2002 Ford Windstar

Based largely on the Ford Taurus sedan, the Windstar minivan was essentially a taller version of the contemporary Taurus station wagon. Being a front-wheel drive offering, the Windstar has a lot going on between the front wheels; suspension, tires, brakes and the driveline can all cause problems experienced as vibration in the steering wheel.

While Sitting Still in Park

    There isn't a lot that can go wrong while your minivan is just sitting in park and idling. About the only thing that could cause vibration in the steering wheel at idle is a malfunction in the hydraulic power steering system. A pump malfunction could cause vibration while sitting still, but, more likely, the vibration has something to do with the valving in the pump or in the power steering rack. A valve that rapidly fluctuates would induce a vibration in the wheel, but symptoms would more likely manifest before that.

Sitting Still, in Drive, Foot on Brake

    Once you engage the transmission and put your foot on the brake, your sending power from the engine, through the torque converter, the transmission, the CV joints and the wheels. Vibration isn't unlikely under these conditions, but it is unlikely that you'd feel it through the steering wheel alone. A misfiring engine, a vacuum leak or a bad torque converter would cause vibrations that may travel all the way through the chassis. A bad CV joint could, theoretically, send vibrations through the steering wheel under these conditions -- but it isn't likely.

While Accelerating and Cruising

    Several things can go wrong during acceleration and under cruise conditions. A bad CV joint can send vibrations through the steering wheel during acceleration and deceleration, but will also send vibrations through the chassis. Worn-out steering and sway bar end-links, suspension bushings, wheel bearings and ball joints can cause vibration during acceleration, but an out of balance wheel or a damaged front tire will certainly cause wheel vibration under both acceleration and cruise conditions. In this case, you're most likely looking at worn-out or out-of-alignment suspension components, an unbalanced wheel or a bad tire.

While Braking and Turning

    Most faults that will send vibrations through a steering wheel under braking will also send vibrations through the brake pedal. A warped rotor will cause wheel and pedal vibration under braking, and worn-out brake pads or pads contaminated with oil or grease may vibrate as well. The antilock brake modulator may cause vibration as well -- but again, such vibration will probably prove more noticeable through the brake pedal. Vibrations that occur while turning typically indicate a bad wheel bearing, damaged or worn-out steering components, and worn-out suspension bushings and suspension components. A bad CV joint can cause vibration while turning, but you'll also feel that through the chassis.

Selasa, 10 April 2012

How to Troubleshoot Automobile Charging System Problems

How to Troubleshoot Automobile Charging System Problems

The charging system of an automobile not only keeps the main battery charged, it also provides the necessary electrical power to operate the engine and accessories. Consisting of a battery, alternator and voltage regulator, the charging system may appear complex at first, but when broken down into its basic parts, it is a very easy system to understand. Dim headlights, slow cranking or a dead battery are sure signs that the charging system requires repair. Diagnosing charging system problems yourself will save you time and money.

Instructions

    1

    Set the vehicle parking brake and place the wheel chock behind one wheel. Inspect the main battery post cables for corrosion or a loose connection. Loosen the battery cable nuts using the correct size socket and gently remove each cable from the battery. Use a pair of slip-joint pliers to pry the battery cables loose if necessary. Use caution not to contact both battery terminals at the same time with any metal tools.

    2

    Clean the battery posts and battery cable terminals with a battery terminal brush. Ensure that all corrosion has been removed and that the posts and terminals are clean and shiny. Replace the cable terminals on the battery posts and tighten the cable nuts securely. Check the battery voltage with a digital multimeter. Place the black lead of the multimeter on the negative battery post and the red lead on the positive battery post. Turn the dial on the multimeter to the "VOLT" function and read the indicated voltage. The battery at rest should read approximately 12.5 volts.

    3

    Charge the battery if the voltage reading is less than 12.5 volts. In certain instances, some alternator-equipped vehicles use positive-ground electrical systems. On positive-ground vehicles, proceed with the charging normally as all connections are at the battery and not the vehicle frame. Connect the black lead of the battery charger to the negative battery post. Connect the red lead of the battery charger to the positive battery post. Plug the battery charger into a standard 120-volt outlet and turn the charger to the lowest setting. Charge the battery for four hours. If your charger is equipped with an automatic timer, set it to "Normal Charge." Recheck the battery voltage when the automatic charging cycle is complete or after four hours, whichever comes first. If the battery still reads less than 12.5 volts, the battery is bad and must be replaced.

    4

    Check the belt tension at the alternator. The alternator is a belt-driven accessory located at the front of the engine. The alternator is identified by one or more wire connections on the rear and open cooling fins on the front through which the internal wiring core can be seen. Some cars have a separate belt for the alternator and some have a single serpentine belt that runs all the accessories. Ensure the belt is tight against the alternator pulley by attempting to turn the pulley by hand. If you can move the pulley by hand then the belt requires tightening. Consult your vehicle owner's manual to determine how this adjustment is made for your specific model.

    5

    Start the engine and bring it to normal operating temperature. Place the black lead of the multimeter on the negative battery post. Place the red lead of the multimeter on the red supply wire at the back of the alternator housing. On some alternators the wire is attached to a single post with a 10 mm nut; on other alternators there is a multi-wire plastic clip. Check for a minimum of 12 volts at the red supply wire. If there is no voltage present at the wire, then there is a problem with the fusible link. The fusible link is normally a heavy red or black wire attached to the positive battery terminal. You will see a bulge where the link is located. The fusible link will burn through when an excess of amperage in the circuit is sensed and thereby prevent a wiring harness fire. If your fusible link has been activated, look for wiring shorts, bare power wires or other damage to the wiring harness. Repair or replace the fusible link.

    6

    With the engine still running, check for a minimum of 14.5 volts at the battery terminals using the multimeter set on "Volts." Clamp the inductive amp probe of the multimeter around the large red battery cable and turn the multimeter dial to the "Amp" function. Turn on the high-beam headlights and observe the multimeter reading. A good alternator will show approximately 25 amps or more with the engine at idle and all vehicle accessories on. If the reading is below 5 amps at idle, then the alternator must be repaired or replaced.

    7

    Check the voltage regulator for proper operation. Any voltage or amperage reading not within specifications, or readings that drift when the vehicle is running, indicate a potential problem with the voltage regulator. Most alternators have internal regulators that cannot be repaired or replaced apart from the alternator. Other vehicle alternators have external regulators attached to the firewall or a fender inside the engine compartment. Replace the regulator on vehicles with external regulators if in Step 6 the charging voltage goes above 15 volts or fluctuates from 12 to 18 volts with a change in engine rpm. Replace just the alternator if the voltage does not climb above 12.5 volts at any engine rpm or if the alternator fails the amperage test.

    8

    Check the engine ground strap for breaks and corrosion. The engine ground strap is normally located at the rear of the engine and is attached to the firewall. Inspect the under-hood wiring for breaks, frays and poor general condition. Repair or replace bad wiring as required.

What Are the Causes of Gas in an Oil Pan?

What Are the Causes of Gas in an Oil Pan?

How do I Troubleshoot a 1999 Town Car?

The 1999 Lincoln Town Car comes equipped with a 4.6 liter, eight cylinder engine. It has numerous standard features and equipment, including an anti-theft alarm system, four-wheel anti-lock brakes, air conditioning, cruise control, power steering, power windows, power locks, self leveling suspension and front side airbags. The Town Car is comprised of many parts, systems and components. The complexity of the car can make it difficult to determine what is causing a particular problem with the vehicle when you try to troubleshoot it. One method to properly troubleshoot the Town Car is to notice how the car feels as you drive.

Instructions

    1

    Inspect the transmission shift linkage on the Town Car when it feels like you lose power as you accelerate. The linkage may have the incorrect cable adjustment.

    2

    Check the tie rod ends of the car if the vehicle has a thump or thud feel to it as you drive. The ends could be worn or damaged, and need to be replaced. If the thump or thud feel comes primarily as you accelerate or slow the Town Car down, the CV half-shaft may be worn or damaged. If the feeling comes primarily as you change gears in the transmission, several parts should be inspected to determine whether they are damaged or need to be replaced. Those parts include the u-joint retainer, u-joint, transmission seal, differential seal and rear differential. The fluid level and contamination of the transmission fluid should also be checked.

    3

    Examine components of the brake system if the Town Car pulls to the left or right as you press down on the brake pedal. The brake caliper piston may be sticking, causing brake drag. The brake pads and shoes may be worn out and need to be replaced, or the rotors could be glazed and warped from overheating. Look also at the brake hoses, wheel cylinders and shock absorbers to ensure that they are functioning properly. If those parts are all in their proper condition, examine the wheel bearings, brake drums, coil springs and brake backing plate for problems or damage.

    4

    If your Town Car lacks power as you drive, check the distributor cap and rotor kit. Both of these components may be loose, cracked or worn.

    5

    Check the transmission system if your car feels like it shifts gears erratically. You may have a leaking transmission modulator, or the transmission fluid level may be too low. Check the transmission filter as well to see whether it is clogged or needs to be replaced.

How to Troubleshoot a 2007 Toyota Corolla CE

How to Troubleshoot a 2007 Toyota Corolla CE

The Toyota Corolla was first launched in 1966. It has gone through numerous re-designs and upgrades in its 45 year history. In 2007 it became the single highest-selling vehicle, with more than 35 million sold since inception, according to Toyota. From time to time you may need to troubleshoot your 2007 Toyota Corolla CE if the car is not functioning properly. Troubleshooting any vehicle begins by identifying the where the problem is, then eliminating possible causes of it.

Instructions

    1

    Drive your 2007 Toyota Corolla and observe any unusual sounds or vibrations coming from the car. If the car is pulling to one side of the road, or feels like it is slightly shaking from side to side, then you should have the alignment of the car inspected. If not corrected, the tires on your Corolla will wear unevenly and will require replacing soon than they would normally.

    2

    Turn on the air condition and the fan motor and confirm that both are functioning properly. If the fan motor is not working at all, open the fuse box and use the included fuse tweezers to remove the fuse for the fan motor. Inspect the plastic end of the fuse to see if the metal strip is broken. If so, the fuse is blown and needs to be replaced.

    3

    Observe how your Corolla responds when you apply the accelerator. If the car hesitates slightly you may have a plugged fuel filter. Internal combustion engines require the right mixture of air and fuel in order for them to function properly. If there is not enough fuel getting into the cylinders then the car may run rough or you may notice a decrease in acceleration. Turn the Corolla off, open the hood and remove the in-line fuel filter. If the filter is plugged replace it with a new one.

Minggu, 08 April 2012

How to Troubleshoot a 2002 Chevy Avalanche

The base trim of the 2002 Chevrolet Avalanche came with a 5.3-liter, eight-cylinder engine that produces 325 foot-pounds of torque at 4,000 rpm. The Avalanche also has many standard features, including a six-way power driver seat, alloy wheels, all-season tires, one-touch power windows, power steering and a leather steering wheel. It can be difficult to troubleshoot a problem with your Avalanche because there are so many different parts and systems on the truck. One way to find a problem is by noticing the location and type of smells that the truck emits as you use it.

Instructions

    1

    Locate the oxygen sensor of your Avalanche if you smell a sulfur odor coming from the truck's exhaust while the engine is idling. The sensor may be damaged or faulty. You should also inspect the catalytic converter to see if it is faulty or has become clogged. The coolant temperature sensor and MAP sensor may also be disconnected or damaged. If the problem still persists after inspecting these different parts, check the carburetor to see if it has been adjusted incorrectly and check the PCV valve to make sure it isn't clogged.

    2

    Inspect the head engine gasket and valve stem seals if your truck emits a lot of smoke right after you start the engine. The gasket could be leaking antifreeze or coolant into the engine's cylinders and the stem seals may be damaged or inoperable.

    3

    Find the heater core on your Avalanche if the passenger compartment smells musty. Make sure that the heater core is not releasing antifreeze into the floor area of the truck.

    4

    Check the piston ring set and head gasket when the truck's exhaust smells like burning oil while you drive. One or more pistons on the ring set may be worn out or broken and the head gasket may be leaking and damaged.

    5

    Examine the engine's belts and battery cables when the truck emits a burning rubber smell while the engine is either idling or driving. One or more of the belts may be missing, broken, improperly routed or improperly adjusted. The battery cables could be broken, corroded or poorly connected.

How Do I Tell if an Inertia Switch Is Activated?

The Ford's inertia switch is a safety precaution used to turn the fuel pump --- or pumps, depending on which Ford you have --- off to prevent fuel from entering the engine in the event of an accident. If the inertia switch is open, the vehicle will not run. If it opens when you are driving, it will shut the vehicle off immediately --- this is a malfunction, and the switch needs to be replaced.

Instructions

    1

    Locate the inertia switch. It is usually located under the dash, on the passenger side of the vehicle. It is a small black box.

    2

    Press the reset button.

    3

    Start the vehicle. If the vehicle starts, the inertia switch was tripped open. If the vehicle does not start, the problem lies elsewhere --- if you have spark, you could have a malfunctioning fuel pump relay or fuel pump.

What Are the Causes of a Chevy Not Starting?

What Are the Causes of a Chevy Not Starting?

A Chevy van might fail to start for a multitude of reasons. Check common symptoms before calling a tow truck or taking the van to a repair shop or garage.

Battery Issues

    Battery malfunction is a common cause of non-starting. The battery might be dead, or terminal connections might be loose. Terminals might be corroded.

Wiring and Fuses

    A Chevy van requires functional wiring, fuses and relays to start. The vehicle's owner manual contains a diagram of fuse locations. Faulty fuses must be replaced. Check the wiring around the starter circuit and fuel system.

Fuel Issues

    Most issues with fuel are not fixable on the spot. An empty or damaged gas tank might be to blame. Fuel might not be reaching the carburetor, or the carburetor might be flooded. Check fuel injectors for misfiring or malfunctioning.

How to Reset the "Check Engine" Light on a 2001 Grand Marquis

The 2001 Mercury Grand Marquis uses a power train control module to monitor and control the engine and transmission. When the module detects a fault in any of the sensors on the power train, it generates a diagnostic trouble code. Once a code is stored, the "Check Engine" light turns on to advise you of the fault. After retrieving the codes, troubleshooting and repairing the fault, you can reset the light. If you understand the fundamentals of automotive repair, you can accomplish this task in about 20 minutes.

Instructions

    1

    Sit in the Grand Marquis's driver seat with the scan tool. Plug the scan tool's datalink cable into the Mercury's diagnostic port. The multi-pin port is a black, rectangular connection located under the driver's side of the dashboard; it resembles a computer monitor port.

    2

    Turn the Grand Marquis's ignition cylinder to the "Run" position. Follow the operating instructions for your scan tool to run a quick test on the power train control module. With most scan tools, this consists of following a series of prompts on the tool's display screen, which you navigate with the interface buttons on the tool.

    3

    Erase the diagnostic trouble codes when prompted to do so by your scan tool. Most scan tools will give you a prompt that reads something like "Clear codes: Yes or No," and you can select "Yes" with the interface buttons.

    4

    Complete the quick test per your scan tool's instructions. Disconnect the scan tool's datalink cable from the Grand Marquis's diagnostic port by hand. Turn the Mercury off.