Minggu, 30 Juni 2013

How to Clear DTC on a 1999 Cadillac

How to Clear DTC on a 1999 Cadillac

"Diagnostic trouble code (DTC) takes the form of an alpha-numeric sequence. A Cadillac's onboard diagnostic system issues a DTC whenever a problem is sensed within the car's engine or electrical system. If you're concerned about clearing the code, then the hardest part of the job, the repair itself, has been completed. Resetting this code, and thereby wiping it from the Cadillac's system, requires the use of an OBD-II compliant scanning tool.

Instructions

    1

    Connect the scanner to the Cadillac's diagnostic system. The scanner itself has a large plug at the end of a cable, and it should fit into the Cadillac's diagnostic port. You can find this port on the driver's side, in the leg space in front of the car seat.

    2

    Turn on the scanning tool.

    3

    Start the Cadillac. The car's computer has to be up and running, or the OBD-II scanning tool will have nothing to interact with.

    4

    Wait for the diagnostic trouble code to appear on the scanning tool's screen.

    5

    Clear the code. Issuing this command should be a simple push of a button, but because scanners are all slightly different by brand, locating the exact button will require consulting the hardware's user's manual.

What Causes Overcooling in an S10?

Produced from 1982 to 2004 in the United States, the Chevy S-10 has went through various changes including new engines, transmissions, body style and trim levels. Despite the six different sized engines used throughout production and the various changes to those as technology permitted the cooling system has always been reasonably the same. Naturally the fan clutch was eventually replace by an electronic cooling fan, and after 996 Dexcool coolant was used as opposed to the tradition Ethelyn-glycol used previously. Aside from minor changes coolant has always traveled from the engine to the radiator for cooling and back again, with a quick stop at the heater core when the heat was turned on, of course. The bottom line is that an engine that isn't reaching operating temperature will cost you gas mileage and will prevent you from having heat in the winter.

Thermostat Problems

    The thermostat on the S-10 in general is mounted to the engine and serves as a door that opens only when the engine reaches a certain temperature. A faulty thermostat that is stuck closed will prevent coolant from leaving the engine and will cause the engine to overheat. The exact opposite is viable as well; a thermostat that is stuck open will constantly allow coolant to flow, often causing the temperature to never reach over 100 degrees. As an inexpensive part, it wouldn't be a bad idea to drain the coolant and replace the thermostat, especially if it hasn't been done in a few years. If you have recently purchased your S-10 it is possible someone remove the thermostat all together, which creates excessive coolant flow and generating hot spots in the cylinder head. Remember just because the temperature gauge is low, parts of your engine could still reach hundreds of degrees and you wouldn't be the wiser.

Front Body Components

    If your over cooling is to the effect the engine reaches operating temperature and then cools dramatically causing momentary loss of heat, could be the result of too much cold air blowing through the radiator fins. If you live in a cold climate, your problem is intermittent and you have some front end body damage; primarily the radiator grill, this could likely be the problem. In excessively cold climates, even without front end damage, some motorists will block off part of the radiator with cardboard and a few zip strips to help prevent this occurrence. As a temporary fix you can use cardboard to help control air flow, but blocking too much of the radiator can cause your engine to overheat. If the cardboard solves your problem search local salvage yards or online to procure a new grill that will properly regulate the amount of air passing through the radiator.

Cooling Fan Operation

    Sometimes a non operational electric cooling fan or a faulty fan clutch may not even be noticeable in cooler climates as the engine is subject to cooler outside temperatures, but if the fan is always at maximum, you may once again be pulling too much air through the radiator causing the engine to over cool. Keep in mind in this scenario the engine will normally reach operating temperature and the thermostat will open before the fan will have an effect on the engine temperature. Anytime an electric cooling fan always runs there is a short to power in the circuit for the fan or the circuit for the electric fan relay.

Solving The Problem

    Nine times out of ten extreme engine over cooling will be the result of a thermostat that is stuck open; it is, in general the cheapest fix and is more likely to fail and cause your over cooling problem. Always double check and verify that your coolant temperature sensor is also properly connected and working. Older S-10 coolant sensors were much like the 305 and 350 setup where a single wire slides over the connector and is often disconnected when replacing ignition wires or if the engine is raised for any reason. If the cabin has heat and the upper radiator hose gets hot after several minutes of operation there is a fault somewhere in the coolant temperature sensor circuit, including the gauge or sensor itself.

Sabtu, 29 Juni 2013

Where Is the Hatch Light Switch on a Ford Escort Wagon?

The Ford Escort was the best selling American-made economy car for nearly two decades. Introduced in 1981, it remained in production until the 2002 model year. Escort station wagons were produced in most, but not all, model years. The wagon's production was discontinued when it was replaced by the Ford Focus. The location of the hatch light switch varies based on the year of production and the trim model. Some Escort wagons had no hatch light switch at all but instead were connected to the interior dome-light system.

Hatch Light Switch

    On those Escort wagons equipped with a hatch light switch, it is located at the bottom of the movable hatch next to the hatch-receiver assembly. Simply lift the hatch, look at the bottom after it is up and locate the switch. Once you know where it is, it is simple to turn on and off just by feeling for it when you pop open the hatch release. If there is no switch, your model may rely on the dome light switch instead.

Dome Light Switch

    Some Ford Escort wagons came equipped with a dome light switch. This switch is centered above the front seat on the car ceiling between the driver and passenger seats. The switch is at the far forward edge of the front dome light. Most switches have three settings. You can set the switch to automatic so the lights (including the hatch light) go on whenever a door is opened and then go off when all doors are closed. Alternately, you can manually turn it on or you can manually leave it off even when doors were opened.

Automatic System

    Some base models of the Ford Escort wagon came with no switches at all. The lights simply turn on when a door is opened and go off when all doors are closed. The hatch is wired in with the rest of the doors; when it is opened in a model like this, the dome lights should come on just as when any passenger door is opened.

Troubleshooting

    If you have no switch at the base of the hatch and the lights do not come on when you open the hatch, you probably have a problem with either a blown fuse or the wiring to the hatch. If the dome lights do not come on when you open any door, it usually indicates a blown fuse. If the dome light does come on when a passenger door is opened but not when the hatch is opened, there may be a problem with the wiring or sensor to the hatch.

Jumat, 28 Juni 2013

How to Identify Which ABS Sensor Is Bad in a 2005 F-150

The anti-lock braking system on a 2005 Ford F-150 has three sensors that relay information to the ABS computer about the rotational speed of the wheels. The front wheels have an individual ABS sensor attached to each wheel hub. The rear wheels use a single ABS sensor that attaches to the top of the differential housing. Because these sensors are computer-controlled components, an automotive scan tool with ABS functionality must be used to determine which sensor is not properly communicating with the ABS computer.

Instructions

    1

    Drive the vehicle to an empty parking lot or vacant street for testing. Youll need to briefly read the scan tool while operating the vehicle, so choose a safe location for this procedure.

    2

    Shift the transmission into park and connect the scan tools data cable to the trucks diagnostic data port, mounted under the leading edge of the lower dashboard panel about two inches to the right of the steering column centerline.

    3

    Turn on the scan tool and navigate to the ABS menu. From the ABS menu, select the live data screen. The live data screen shows real-time information from all of the anti-lock braking systems electronic components, including the individual wheel speed sensors. The exact menu structure of your scan tool may differ slightly depending upon its brand and specific functionality.

    4

    Make sure the road ahead is clear and then drive the truck forward 50 to 100 feet. Glance down at the scan tool while the truck is moving and look at the speed listed for each ABS sensor on the scan tools screen. All of the sensors should match the reading on the trucks speedometer and also agree with each other. The faulty sensor will show a speed of zero while the other sensors show the trucks current speed.

    5

    Stop the truck and shift the transmission back into park. Note which sensor is faulty on a piece of paper; this is the sensor that needs to be replaced. Power down the scan tool and disconnect its data cable.

How to Check a Stuck Engine Valve

How to Check a Stuck Engine Valve

Every engine has intake and exhaust valves. Valves open to intake fuel or expel exhaust. They close when their cycle completes. Valve stems sit in long tubular guides that provide a track for them to move up and down in. The camshaft lifts and drops the valves singularly, or they have rocker arms, springs, lifters and push rods to assist them. Sometimes valve stick open or closed, causing an engine miss. Stuck valves can have serious consequences on engine performance and engine life. They must be attended to quickly to avoid catastrophic engine failure. Diagnosis should be performed immediately.

Instructions

    1

    Look for any "Check Engine" light that illuminates on the instrument panel during normal engine operation and driving. If you see warning light with an "Emissions" indicator it could be mean the problem directly relates to a frozen valve. O2 (oxygen) sensors can pick up a faulty air-fuel mixture in the exhaust system.

    2

    Listen for a noticeable engine miss just after start-up. A cold engine will magnify any sticking valve problem because the valve stem and guide have minimum clearance when cold. You might detect an intermittent miss or hesitation that goes away after the engine warms up.

    3

    Stay alert for any engine overheating that appears on your dashboard indicator lights. A stuck exhaust valve in the closed position produces extreme cylinder temperatures. Listen for a pinging or rattling engine noise, in association with pre-ignition (after-burning of fuel). Hot spots on the valve face and piston top cause this type of noise.

    4

    Notice any unusual smell originating from the undercarriage of the vehicle in the vicinity of the catalytic converter. A rotten egg or strong sulphur smell indicates a saturated catalytic converter that cannot burn away a rich fuel mixture. An intake valve stuck in the open position allows too much fuel to pass through the exhaust system without proper burning.

    5

    Remove the valve covers of the engine, using an appropriate socket and wrench. Remove the single valve cover in the case of a four-cylinder or straight-six engine. Disconnect the main coil wire, or the plug wires at the coil pack location. Have an assistant crank the engine over. Watch all of the valve springs on the head for movement. Every valve spring should move up and down with regular rhythm. A valve spring that does not move, chatters or moves intermittently indicates a sticking valve.

    6

    Remove the spark plug wires from each cylinder with the spark plug wire removal tool. Keep the plug wires in the proper order and location. Remove all the spark plugs from their sockets with a wrench and plug socket. Check the spark plug electrodes. They should all have a light tan appearance. Any plug that looks wet, black, crusted and dark brown indicates an improper fuel mixture or overheating problem, associated with a stuck valve (provided the plug receives proper spark).

    7

    Screw in the compression gauge at one of the cylinder locations. Make sure the coil or coil pack wire remains disconnected. Have your assistant crank the engine over six or seven times and stop. Read the psi (pounds per square inch) on the gauge and record it.

    8

    Test all the cylinders with the compression gauge in the same manner and write down the numbers. All the cylinders should read high, with none reading lower than 30 pounds or less than the others. An exhaust or intake valve that is stuck open or partially open will cause a noticeable drop in cylinder compression. A zero reading in a cylinder points to a valve stuck in a wide-open position.

Kamis, 27 Juni 2013

How to Troubleshoot Overheating in a 1985 Honda Accord

How to Troubleshoot Overheating in a 1985 Honda Accord

Most older cars are prone to overheating as hoses, thermostats, water pumps and other components of the cooling system wear down. The 1985 Honda Accord is no exception. Once you start to notice the signs, it is time to take action and get to the root of the problem. However, before spending money at an auto service center, you may want to diagnosis the problem yourself with some relatively simple troubleshooting.

Instructions

    1

    Check your radiator cap. In some instances, the root of your Accord's overheating problems could be due to a damaged seal in the radiator cap. If the cap is cool, remove it and inspect it for signs of damage. If you observe damage to the seal, it would be best to purchase a new cap rather than attempt to replace it.

    2

    Inspect your lower radiator hose. A leaky lower radiator hose is a common culprit of overheating. The first thing you want to do is check for any obvious leaks that may be present. Because not all leaks are obvious, you should check the hose for signs of wear and tear, any noticeable discoloration or unusual bending. If the hose is bent, for example, it is very likely that your Accord is overheating because coolant is not flowing freely to the cooling system.

    3

    Examine your coolant level. This can be done by taking a look at the reserve coolant tank under the hood of your Accord. If the tank is completely empty or below the indicated minimal level, refer to the manual that came with the vehicle and then add the correct type of coolant. When adding coolant to the tank, be very cautious not to overfill as this will cause the liquid to spill out and falsely indicate signs of leakage, which could be alarming if you are already concerned about overheating.

    4

    Check your water pump. You can find the water pump on a 1985 Honda Accord at the front of the engine. What you want to do here is look for signs of leakage as the water pump may actually leak coolant due to a worn out gasket or mechanical failure. In either case, this is usually a sign that the water pump needs to be replaced. If you recently had a new water pump installed, you may be able to get away with just replacing the gasket.

    5

    Start the engine on your Accord, and let it run for a couple of minutes to see if it overheats. If it does so after replacing the radiator cap, changing the radiator hose, filling the reserve tank, changing the water pump gasket or replacing the pump entirely, the root of the problem is likely due to a failed radiator, thermostat or blown head gasket.

Rabu, 26 Juni 2013

What Causes Car Cylinder Damage?

What Causes Car Cylinder Damage?

There are a number indicators of cylinder wall damage that can be heard and seen as your car is operated. If the gap between the cylinders and the pistons is too great, you can hear a sound known as "piston slap." If your engine is using more than one quart of oil every thousand miles, there probably is damage to the piston rings and damage to the cylinder walls.

Lack of Lubrication

    Cylinder walls are lubricated as the rotating crankshaft picks up oil from the oil pan and flings it up on the cylinder walls. As the piston is forced down during the combustion stroke, oil rings on each piston scrape excess oil off the cylinder wall, leaving a thin oil layer of hydrodynamic lubrication. This layer of oil is what protects your engine cylinder walls from damage. If you allow your engine to operate with insufficient oil in the pan, the result is cylinder wall damage.

Engine Overheating

    Normal operating temperature for automobile and pickup engines is 195 to 220 degrees Fahrenheit. Generally, when engine temperature reaches 280 degrees Fahrenheit, internal engine parts begin to expand, causing metal-to-metal contact between moving parts. Metal-to-metal contact with cylinder walls damages both the piston and the cylinder wall. Continued engine operation at temperatures of 280 degrees Fahrenheit may cause pistons to seize in the cylinder. Serious cylinder and piston damage may occur the first time your car is allowed to overheat.

Dirt and Contamination

    Dirt and contamination can enter an engine cylinder from a number of different sources. Dirty engine oil splashed up on cylinder walls during engine operation may cause the surface to be scored as the piston moves up and down. Carbon deposits around the valves may break off during combustion and cause damage to cylinder walls. Piston rings may break if you allow the engine to operate at too high of engine revolutions, creating small pieces of metal that damage cylinder walls.

Piston Slap

    Piston slap damage occurs at the upper and lower limits of the piston's travel in the cylinder. As the engine ages, the clearance between pistons and cylinder walls increases. As each piston reaches the upper or lower limit of travel within the cylinder, the pistons pivot on the piston pin that attaches the piston to the connecting rod. This rotation causes excessive wear on the cylinder wall as each piston "slaps" into the cylinder wall. Piston slap makes a sound that can be diagnosed by an experience auto repair technician.

Selasa, 25 Juni 2013

How to Inspect Ball Joints

How to Inspect Ball Joints

Ball joints are a crucial component in your car's suspension system. They connect pretty much all of the major suspension components, as well as bear a large amount of weight of the vehicle. Their design also makes it possible for the suspension system to move while your car is being driven. Having a ball joint fail while driving can be extremely dangerous. It's good to know how to check them, so you don't have a ball joint fail unexpectedly.

Instructions

    1

    Place your car on jack stands by using a lift to place each side of your car on the stands. Make sure your car is in a stable position. Your car may be here for an extended period of time, and you'll need access to the suspension.

    2

    Locate your ball joints. Depending on the kind of car you have, they'll be in different locations. Consult your maintenance manual.

    3

    Check the wear indicator on each of your ball joints. This is a nub that protrudes from the joint. If it's been worn down, it's time to replace the joint.

    4

    If there are boots around your ball joints, make sure they're in good condition as well. If they've worn or cracked, it's likely you'll have to replace the joint.

What Happens When Your Distributor Cap Goes Bad?

What Happens When Your Distributor Cap Goes Bad?

The distributor cap, the top part of a car's distributor that regulates the engine's firing order, serves as an integral part of an automotive ignition system. When the distributor begins to fail, drivers may notice symptoms that range from a rough idle to a car that will not start.

Symptoms

    According to the automotive website Clark's Garage, a cracked distributor cap can cause a car's engine to miss. Misses in the engine may lead to a rough idle and hesitation during acceleration. A completely failed distributor cap will also interrupt the flow of electricity to the car's spark plugs, preventing the vehicle from starting.

Signs of Wear

    In some cases, a bad distributor cap may display physical cracks. Clark's Garage notes that distributor caps do not always display physical symptoms, so vehicle owners may need to remove the cap for testing.

Considerations

    Many new cars, according to the automotive website EconoFix, do not have distributors. Because distributors and distributor caps are somewhat prone to failure, many newer vehicles now include distributorless systems known as direct ignition, or DI, systems.

Senin, 24 Juni 2013

How to Troubleshoot the Fuel System in a 2005 Dodge Magnum

How to Troubleshoot the Fuel System in a 2005 Dodge Magnum

A 2005 Dodge Magnum uses the second generation of On-Board Diagnostics. The Magnum's powertrain control module keeps a running record of problems occuring within the engine, emissions, and fuel system. By accessing the PCM and OBD-II system, you can create a list of known problems. This, however, is not a silver bullet. It is just an efficient way to begin the troubleshooting process.

Instructions

    1

    Look into the Magnum's leg space. You are searching for a 16-pin receiving outlet. This data link connector is your access to the automobile's PCM. A 2005 Dodge Magnum features the DLC under the steering wheel and column. It is uncovered and in plain site.

    2

    Attach a diagnostic cable to the bottom of your OBD-II scanner. Then, plug the cable into the Magnum's DLC outlet. If the scanner doesn't immediately switch itself on, turn it on by pressing its power key.

    3

    Stick your Magnum's key into the vehicle's ignition. Turn the key to the "On" position. The automobile's electrical system will become active. For some OBD-II scanners, this is enough. Some brands, however, also need the engine running. If you are using one of these scanners, start the engine at this time.

    4

    Allow your OBD-II scanner to interface with the Magnum's PCM. This should only take a second. If your scanner was manufactured and preset for auto-code retrieval, then OBD-II codes should appear on the scanner's display. Not all scanners are pre-programmed this way, and you may need to punch in a "scan" or "read" command. Since scanners differ by brands, consult the instructions detailed in your device's manual.

    5

    Read through the codes on your device's display screen. Eliminate some of the OBD-II codes from immediate consideration. You are looking for codes that start with "P." Anything starting with "B," "C," or "U" can be ignored from the time being. Also, look at how your scanner designates each P-code. "Pending" is assigned to codes that have occurred infrequently. "Trouble" refers to often repeating probelms, and these malfunctions have sett off the Magnum's check engine light.

    6

    Copy all the "trouble" P-codes onto a sheet of paper. Then, beneath them, copy out all the "pending" codes. While these codes have not happened frequently, they easily could be new problems that may eventually be reclassified as "trouble."

    7

    Switch Your OBD-II scanner off. Remove the scanner's diagnostic cable from the Magnum's DLC outlet. Turn the Magnum off and remove the automobile's key from the ignition.

    8

    Research the OBD-II codes on your list. There are two list of coding definitions that you will need to find. All post-1996 vehicles use a universal set of OBD-II codes. Your scanner's manual will likely offer this list, and it is usually located towards the manual's end. Dodge also uses Chrysler's specialized and supplemental codes. Your Magnum's manual will not have these, and your scanner's manual will likely not have these, either. You can either find Chrysler's codes online (See Resources), or you can obtain a Haynes Repair Manual.

    9

    Copy coding definitions next to the codes on your list.

    10

    Open the Magnum's hood and troubleshoot based upon your list. Check all the codes. The engine, the fuel system, and emissions are all related. Also, troubleshoot entire systems. For example, if a coding definition details a specific ignition cylinder, not only check that cylinder, but all the others, too. If you are checking for a fault in the Exhaust Gas Redirection sensor, check not just that sensor, but the whole EGR system.

Reasons Fuel Pumps Fail

The fuel injection system works with a fuel tank from which the fuel pump takes fuel and sends it to the fuel injector. From there, the fuel goes through the fuel rail, where it is sent through the cylinders. The remaining fuel goes through the fuel filter and the process starts over again. Some fuel pumps are located inside the gas tank while some are outside. Older vehicles have a mechanical fuel pump that send fuel to the carburetor. However, most vehicles use an electronic fuel system because it is more efficient. Either way, the fuel pump can fail, and there are several reasons why.

Wear and Tear

    If a fuel pump suffers from excessive wear and tear, the bearings, roller gears, pump valves, brushings and/or armature will become worn. This will cause a pressure loss that will get worse over time. Engine performance will suffer. A fuel pump is made to last the life of the car, according to Popular Mechanics, but most do not. If the vehicle is not running as well as it used to, have an auto technician check the fuel pump.

Debris

    A common reason fuel pumps fail is because rust, dirt and debris get past the fuel filter and go right into the fuel pump, fuel injector and engine. The purpose of the fuel filter is to prevent this from happening. This will cause the fuel pump to jam, and fuel will slow to a trickle. Eventually, the engine will overheat. This problem can be prevented by ensuring the fuel filter is replaced every 25,000 to 35,000 miles, depending on how much the car is driven, advises 2CarPros.

Insuffucient Fuel

    Fuel pumps can also fail because of an inadequate amount of fuel in the gas tank. A fuel pump needs enough fuel running through it to keep it lubricated and cool. If the fuel tank is often low, the fuel pump will eventually fail. Prevent this from happening by not allowing the gas gauge to fall below one-quarter of a tank of gas. Refill the tank before it gets too low.

Broken Diaphragm

    A mechanical fuel pump will fail when the diaphragm (which is the pump) breaks. When this happens, a little bit of fuel will leak, or it will just lose pressure. If fuel is leaking from the vehicle and it has a mechanical fuel system, the fuel pump will most likely be the source of the problem. In this case, take the vehicle to an auto technician to have it fixed.

Symptoms of a Clogged EGR

Symptoms of a Clogged EGR

Most modern vehicles come equipped with an Exhaust Gas Recirculation valve, otherwise known as the EGR valve. The EGR valve is designed to control the amount of nitrous oxide that builds up in your motor by releasing some of the gases back into the motor and venting the rest out.



The "dirt" that causes your EGR valve to become clogged is not the same kind of dirt you find on the ground. The build-up is actually carbon deposits that accumulate inside your EGR valve and harden. When carbon builds up inside your EGR valve, your car will not run properly.



You can check for carbon-build up by removing your EGR valve and inspecting it for hardened clogs or deposits. A clogged EGR valve has several symptoms.

Stalling

    Your EGR valve operates using a vacuum that controls airflow between the intake manifold and the EGR valve itself. If the EGR valve becomes clogged, there is the possibility that your car vacuum may become too strong and open the EGR valve completely, causing your engine to stall.

Idling Problems

    When your EGR valve becomes clogged, air and emissions are not able to properly circulate through your engine and your car will not idle properly. A car with a clogged EGR valve has a tendency to cough and sputter while idling.

Knocking or Popping

    On rare occasions, a clogged EGR valve cause your engine to make a knocking or popping noise. This can occur when the EGR valve is stuck in the closed position and gases build up in your motor.

1992 Toyota Pickup Throttle Sensor Troubleshooting

1992 Toyota Pickup Throttle Sensor Troubleshooting

Your 1992 Toyota pickup truck uses a variable-resistor throttle position sensor (TPS) to inform the computer of the exact position of the throttle plate inside the throttle body. The computer uses this and other sensors' data to adjust the air/fuel mixture for better engine performance. Since several sensors work in conjunction, you need to verify your throttle sensor has actually failed. Troubleshoot the TPS yourself at home. Save time and money and avoid replacing unnecessary components in your Toyota pickup.

Instructions

    1

    Open the hood of your 1992 Toyota pickup and locate the TPS. Follow the air cleaner assembly, which houses the air filter, toward the top and center of the engine. This assembly connects to the throttle body on that end. The throttle body has four thin hoses connected on top and under the hoses, on one side of the throttle body, you will see the TP sensor, a small, black electrical component with a four wire electrical connector attached to it.

    2

    Remove the air cleaner assembly using a Phillips screwdriver.

    3

    Unplug the TPS electrical connector and make sure the four electrical pins on the sensor are straight and not bent or damaged.

    4

    Ask an assistant to depress slowly the accelerator pedal as you watch the throttle body. On one side of the throttle body, you will see the mechanism that activates the throttle round plate inside the body as your assistant depresses the accelerator pedal. This mechanism has a lever that hits a stop screw when the mechanism is resting or the pedal is not depressed.

    5

    Make sure the throttle plate is fully closed (accelerator pedal not depressed).

    6

    Insert a 0.0224-inch thick feeler gauge (0.57 mm) between the throttle mechanism lever and the stop screw, if you have a 22R-E engine. Use a 0.020-inch (0.50 mm) feeler gauge on the 3VZ-E and 1FZ-FE engines. Use a 0.022-inch (0.57 mm) feeler gauge on the 2RZ-FE and 3RZ-FE engines. Use a 0.013-inch (0.32 mm) on the 5VZ-FE engine and a 0.0303-inch (0.77 mm) feeler gauge on the 3F-E engine.

    7

    Get the ohmmeter out of your toolbox and set it to the lowest range on the Ohms scale or the continuity setting, if it has one.

    8

    Turn on your ohmmeter and touch the bottom and next to the bottom electrical pins on the sensor with your two meter probes. The readout on your ohmmeter should register some resistance or produce an audible beeping sound, if it is equipped with a continuity checker. If the sensor does not register any resistance value or continuity, replace it.

    9

    Replace the feeler gauge with a 0.0335-inch (0.85 mm) feeler gauge between the throttle mechanism lever and the stop screw, if you have a 22R-E engine. Use a 0.031-inch (0.80 mm) feeler gauge on the 3VZ-E and 1FZ-FE engines. Use a 0.029-inch (0.74 mm) feeler gauge on the 2RZ-FE and 3RZ-FE engines. Use a 0.021-inch (0.54 mm) on the 5VZ-FE engine and a 0.0429-inch (1.09 mm) feeler gauge on the 3F-E engine.

    10

    Touch the bottom and next to the bottom electrical pins on the sensor with your two meter probes. The readout on your ohmmeter should not register any resistance value or produce a beeping sound, if it is equipped with a continuity checker. If the sensor registers resistance or continuity, replace it.

    11

    Turn off your ohmmeter, plug in the TPS electrical connector, replace the air cleaner assembly using the Phillips screwdriver and close the hood.

Minggu, 23 Juni 2013

How to Tell if Shocks Are Going Bad

Shocks are designed to induce resistance to movement of the body of the vehicle, resulting in a dampening effect on a rough surface. They have no effect on the height of the vehicle. Shocks are filled with hydraulic fluid and nitrogen in place of air. The size and type of pressure release orifices determine how well the shock operates.

Instructions

    1

    Test the dampening or rebounding ability of the shocks by rocking the front of the vehicle up and down, allowing it to rebound. Good shocks should stop the vehicle from bouncing on the first bounce. Resistance should be felt when pushing down on the front. This is an easy and accurate test. Do the same for the rear of the vehicle. Stand or kneel on the bumper to get it rocking, and then step off and watch the number of rebounds.

    2

    Test the shocks by driving over a rough surface. There should not be any bouncing. Recovery from a bounce induced by a rough surface should be immediate.

    3

    Jack up the vehicle and lower it onto the jack stands. Inspect the shocks from underneath. Look for oil leaking from around the arm, indicating a failed seal. Look for any damage, dry rot, and cracked or missing bushings. If any of these are evident, replace the shocks.

Broken Prop Shaft Symptoms

Broken Prop Shaft Symptoms

The propeller shaft was one of those things that never made it across the Atlantic; well, the name didn't, anyway. Known in the colonies as a "driveshaft," this vital component is what links your transmission to the wheels and makes the car go. Driveshafts are a bit more complicated than they might seem at first blush, and can fail in a number of different ways.

Clacking

    A driveshaft will typically fail in the universal joints at either end before it does anywhere else. Also known as the Cardan or double-Cardan joint, the universal joint is what allows the driveshaft to angle up and down in response to suspension movement. Universal joint failure typically starts out as a very slight increase in clearance; this increase in clearance allows the yoke to build up momentum before engaging, eliciting a clunk or bang and hammering of the joint's remaining bearings into slurry.

Vibration

    Driveshafts spin very quickly; roughly 2.5 to 4 times as fast as the tires. A perfectly round driveshaft will rotate smoothly, but any irregularity in driveshaft mass distribution will result in moderate-to-severe vibration. A small dent in the driveshaft or missing balance weight will cause a slight vibration at high speed, while a severe dent or completely bent driveshaft will spill your coffee and rattle your eyeballs.

Twist and Stop

    While fairly rare, driveshaft twisting isn't unheard of in high-torque, high-weight applications. A twisted driveshaft is exactly what it sounds like, and often results from "neutral dropping" the transmission by revving it up in neutral and dropping it into drive. Odds are best that a neutral drop will just break the tires loose, but really large, heavy tires may grab well enough to twist the shaft. Worst case scenario is that the twisting shortens the driveshaft enough to pull it out of the transmission.

Pole Vaulting

    While this may seem hard to believe -- especially if you've seen certain TV programs that "prove" it's nearly impossible -- the National Hot Rod Association requires protective driveshaft loops for a reason. Driveshaft bending, twisting or snapping will often either break the transmission case or pull the shaft out of the transmission and drop it on the ground. Forward motion can drive the transmission into the ground, either breaking the rear end or causing the car to pole-vault onto its nose.

Saturn Ion Power Steering Problems

Saturn Ion Power Steering Problems

In 2003, Saturn, an automobile manufacturing company operated by General Motors, released a four-door sedan called the Ion. Also available in a two-door coupe model, the Ion was marketed as an affordable vehicle that was safe to drive, with the hope of attracting younger drivers. Unfortunately, many safety issues quickly arose with the Ion, including problems with the steering mechanism.

Steering Wheel Key Release

    According to complaints found on consumeraffairs.com, many Saturn Ion owners experienced problems with their steering wheel column and ignition. Complaints have been made about the key sticking in the ignition, preventing the car from turning off. When attempting to remove the key, the key won't budge. Once it is lodged into the ignition, the ignition won't turn to shut the car off and it won't release the key. This can lock the steering column in some instances.

Power Steering

    Complaints logged on consumeraffairs.com and All World Auto's complaint section state that the ION's power steering goes out during randomly. When power steering fails, it makes turning the steering wheel of the car extremely difficult. A lot of muscle is required to turn a steering wheel without power steering, which is unsafe if you are not accustomed to driving without it.

Transmission

    While operating their Ion, some owners have complained that their transmissions failing. When this happens, the complaints report that the drivers can't switch gears and, in some cases, can't get their car to go more than 30 to 35 mph. While maneuvering the car in this state, gears grind together and steering becomes difficult. Reports of this problem have been made to Consumer Affairs.

Cruise Control

    Reported on both consumeraffairs.com and allworldauto.com, some Saturn Ion owners have complained that the cruise-control function goes in and out while driving. When this happens, reports claim that the car jerks as the cruise control fails, which is dangerous while driving at high speeds, because it inhibits your ability to steer safely.

My 2005 Ford F-150 Won't Start

My 2005 Ford F-150 Won't Start

Ford's F-150's production history dates back to the 1948 model year and continues to the present day. The 2005 model F-150 features a five speed manual or automatic transmission and either an Essex V6 or a Triton V8 engine, depending on the specific package purchased. Both the Essex and Triton engines can fail to start due to ignition or fuel delivery issues, which should be inspected before researching other potential causes.

Instructions

F-150 Doesn't Crank

    1

    Jump start the F-150. This may require the use of heavy duty jumper cables and most likely will require a vehicle with equivalent battery power to the F-150.

    2

    Run the F-150's engine for several minutes. Shut down the truck, remove the jumper cables, and try starting the truck again. Replace the battery if the truck still doesn't start.

    3

    Have a mechanic inspect the ignition switch, starter, and other ignition system components if jump starting the truck fails to start the engine.

If the F-150 Cranks

    4

    Put gas in the F-150's fuel tank. The truck may be on empty and the problem could lie with a faulty fuel gauge.

    5

    Obtain a spark tester and test each spark plug. If the air/fuel mixture cannot be ignited due to a bad spark plug, the engine will crank without starting.

    6

    Remove the timing belt cover and inspect the timing belt. If the belt has slipped from position or snapped altogether, it will need to be replaced by a qualified mechanic as the process is quite involved.

    7

    Turn the key on and listen for the fuel pump to pressurize the fuel injection system. If you are unable to hear this, have a mechanic inspect the fuel pump and replace it if necessary.

How to Troubleshoot an Auto Headlamp

How to Troubleshoot an Auto Headlamp

Headlamp illumination means more than simply being able to see at night. Headlamps are a beacon to other vehicles, stating your distance, direction and location. High beams allow drivers to penetrate through fog, rain and hail. Headlamps also serve as safety insurance during times of limited visibility and those hazy moments between sunrise and sunset. Non-operational headlamps can garner vehicle owners with equipment violation tickets. Fortunately, vehicle owners can troubleshoot headlamp problems if they know how and where to look for the faults.

Instructions

    1

    Place the vehicle in park or neutral with the emergency brake set. Raise the hood and disconnect the negative battery cable. Refer to your owner's manual for the location of your main fuse block. It will be located in the engine compartment, under the dashboard near the kick panel, or in the glove box. Pull the lid off of the fuse block and look for the headlamp fuse. A small diagram on the inside of the fuse block cover will show you which fuse to check. Whether the fuse has a tube or spade design, pull it out and examine the small metal filament inside. Make sure it is not blown (broken). Replace it if it is broken.

    2

    Check the relay in the fuse block. The relay will be a small black or silver box that has several small tangs plugged into the fuse block face. You can unplug the relay and switch it with another relay of the same tang configuration and amperage to see if that solves your headlamp problem. You can also pull the relay partially out and probe each tang with a test light tip, but you will have to reconnect the negative battery terminal and turn the headlights on. No illumination from any tang indicates a faulty relay. A relay that rattles when shaken is blown.

    3

    Look at your headlamps for an outage in either a low beam or high beam location on one headlamp. If either location shows non-operation, it means a filament to a single bulb or a filament to a double element bulb has failed. A single headlamp that shows an outage on both high and low beams means either the main bulb or both elements have failed.

    4

    Use the proper socket and wrench to remove the main headlight lens. Refer to your owner's manual for the proper removal procedure -- screwdrivers and sockets will be required. Remove the retainer ring that holds the bulb and inspect the filament inside the bulb. A bad bulb will show a burnt filament inside the bulb casing. Insert the proper replacement bulb in the socket and reinstall the retainer ring into the back of the lens housing. Note: do not touch the outside surface of the bulb--use a rag to install it.

    5

    Check all of the connections on the wire socket plugs after you remove the lens. Spray contact cleaner inside the connector jacks. Make sure any small ground wires have either tight and clean fittings in the back of the lens housing or negative ground wires that attach to the frame.

    6

    Determine if your vehicle has a control module for automatic lights. The control module contains an ambient light sensor that triggers a switch when the headlamps need to come on. If your headlamps have no burned bulbs, relays or fuses, you should suspect a problem with the automatic headlamp control module. Your dealership or auto repair facility can run a diagnostic code scanner on your vehicle to pinpoint this problem.

Sabtu, 22 Juni 2013

How to DIY Troubleshoot a Mercedes

Mercedes-Benz, in business for over 100 years, has made a wide variety of cars and SUVs. Mechanically, their vehicles have been very well made -- except for the bad years of the 1990s when they tried to move downmarket with their acquisition of Chrysler. However, electrical issues have always plagued Mercedes-Benz vehicles for a variety of reasons. In addition, there are power train issues that will differ whether you have a gas, diesel or hybrid model.

Instructions

    1

    Inspect the paintwork for damage. Scratches, dents and corrosion can all be indicative of greater damage elsewhere. Any scratch on the paint can be expensive, because Mercedes often used limited run paints (restricted to certain cars and years of manufacture). Paint needs to be repaired soon, as it can lead to early rust. Any dents in the body panel could mean that the Mercedes was in an accident and could have frame damage underneath. If there is corrosion in the panel then it is guaranteed that there is rust elsewhere, especially on the undercarriage.

    2

    Open the hood and inspect the engine. There should be no debris in the engine bay or radiator. If your Mercedes is a carbureted model, then inspect the barrel intakes for damage to the valves. Damaged carburetor valves can lead to irregular air-fuel mixes that can damage your piston or sleeves. If your engine is fuel injected, then inspect the fuel lines for leaks (pay special attention to the rubber hoses, as they have a tendency to become brittle with age). Inspect the power lines on the hybrid model for any damage (do not touch damaged ones). Call a Mercedes dealership to repair a hybrid model.

    3

    Turn the car on and listen to it idle. The hybrid Mercedes should not run the engine while the car is sitting still, only when under power. Non-hybrids should idle around 2000 rpm (if it idles higher than this, there may be a problem with the fuel-air mix). Watch the engine temperature. Even on a hot day, the engine should remain cool in idle.

    4

    Drive the Mercedes forward and listen for the engine. AMG models should roar when the throttle is pushed in, even at sedate speeds. Non-AMG models should be whisper quiet, even at highway speeds (if you hear the engine, then some of the noise isolation material has fallen off). Mercedes prides itself on providing quiet interiors on their regular cars. The car should easily absorb any bumps in the road. If the car rocks a lot then the shocks may be shot.

How to Check the Vacuum on a 2002 Pontiac Grand Prix

As the pistons in the engine of your 2002 Pontiac Grand Prix travel down the cylinders during the intake stroke, vacuum is created in the intake manifold. When camshaft and ignition timing are correct the vacuum in the manifold will be high and help properly mix and distribute the air/fuel mixture into the cylinder. Intake manifold vacuum provides a good indication of the overall condition of the engine and can be used to diagnose engine problems caused by timing and valve train components.

Instructions

    1

    Start the engine and run it until it warms up enough for the idle speed to stabilize. It is important that the engine be warm so that the idle air control valve is adjusting the idle speed to normal speed and not high idle speed. Turn off the engine.

    2

    Attach the vacuum gauge to a manifold vacuum source. In the 2002 Grand Prix this is best accomplished by removing the PCV valve and attaching the gauge to the valve's hose.

    3

    Start the engine. Observe the gauge during engine operation. A gauge that is steady, above 18 inches of vacuum and drops 2 to 5 inches of vacuum before rising to normal when the throttle is open and closed rapidly, is normal.

Kamis, 20 Juni 2013

How to Troubleshoot an Air Brake

How to Troubleshoot an Air Brake

Air brakes are used on combination tractor trailers to stop up to 40 tons reliably. Unlike cars and small trucks, air brakes hold the brakes open against strong springs until the air pressure is released by the brake pedal, allowing the springs to close the brake shoes. The system uses reservoirs, or tanks, to hold air under pressure. The air travels through hoses to cylinders located at each wheel. The cylinders keep the brakes open. Truck drivers need to troubleshoot brake problems carefully and quickly.

Instructions

    1

    Note the time that passes between pressing on the brake pedal and the slowing of the truck. Trucks vary with the time it takes to slow down the truck. If the time has lengthened from what you're used to, it could be an adjustment problem, a hose that's kinked, a valve failure or low pressure in the system.

    2

    Check how long it takes for the brakes to release after you've taken your foot off the brake pedal. Determine whether this length of time has changed from what you're used to. If the length of time is longer than usual, it could be an adjustment issue, the brake rigging is binding, the relay emergency valve has a restriction or stoppage or there's a kink in the air hoses leading from the cab to the truck.

    3

    Be aware of the smoothness of the brakes. Grabbing brakes, or brakes that don't apply gradually but bind suddenly, can send the rig into an uncontrollable skid. Grease on the brakes, rigging that binds or a faulty relay emergency valve can cause this.

    4

    Check the air pressure gauge. Air brake systems require 100 to 125 psi to work properly. There are warning lights and buzzers that activate if the air pressure drops below 60 psi. If the pressure goes below 20 to 45 psi, the truck will stop completely and immediately.

Common Power Steering Problems

Common Power Steering Problems

Anyone who has ever tried to steer a car without the benefit of power steering knows how much physical strength it can take to maneuver a vehicle into a parking space or around a tight turn. There are several problems that can occur with your power steering system, including noises and difficulty in steering.

Leaks

    Your car's power steering system operates using hydraulic fluid that is controlled through the power steering pump. If the power steering pump or any of its connecting hoses develops a leak, power steering fluid will leak right out. The lower the power steering fluid level gets, the harder your car will be to steer.

Belts and Pulleys

    The power steering system operates via a belt and pulley system, using the power from the engine to operate the hydraulic power steering pump. As with any belt and pulley system, belts can break. If the belt breaks, the power steering pump will not have any way to get power, and the power steering will stop functioning.

Noises

    Power steering pumps that are developing problems have a tendency to make noise. Power steering pumps have been known to whine, grind, howl and bubble. If you hear the power steering pump making any kind of noise, you should take your car to a mechanic. You will know it is the power steering making the noise if you can sit at a stop with your vehicle idling and the noise increases when you turn the wheel to the right or left.

Chevrolet OBD 2 Error Codes

Chevrolet OBD 2 Error Codes

On Board Diagnostic systems (OBD) use different internal monitoring systems to evaluate engine performance and function. Errors noted are stored in a vehicle's OBD system. Using a code reader or other device, you retrieve those codes to quickly determine your vehicle's issue without tearing the vehicle apart. Chevrolet uses model specific coding, but adheres to general guidelines on the coding.

General Code Sections

    The following is a general list of the sections and systems that are monitored:

    P0001-P0099: Fuel and Air Metering and Auxiliary Emission Controls

    P0100-P0199: Fuel and Air Metering

    P0200-P0299: Fuel and Air Metering (Injector Circuit)

    P0300-P0399: Ignition System or Misfire

    P0400-P0499: Auxiliary Emissions Controls

    P0500-P0599: Vehicle Speed Controls and Idle Control System

    P0600-P0699: Computer Output Circuit

    P0700-P0899: Transmission

Code Readers

    Chevrolet published the specific codes to third-party manufacturers. Code readers come with an index inside of the user manuals, which detail what each identified code means. OBD-II code books and model specific repair manuals give an exhaustive breakdown of codes and definitions. The books and repair manuals are available at most auto parts retailers.

GM Resources

    If you have continued issues identifying the code's definition, contact your local GM or Chevrolet dealer for assistance. The repair department maintains a company-published list of all codes for Chevrolet and GM vehicles for reference. These codes are also published online.

Rabu, 19 Juni 2013

My Chrysler LeBaron Won't Start

My Chrysler LeBaron Won't Start

The Chrysler LeBaron, popular in the 1980s, is known for its sporty style. LeBarons can be found in coupe, sedan or convertible styles. There are many possible reasons that a Chrysler LeBaron may not start. The problem could be a run-down battery, a faulty engine, an empty gas tank or something else. There are a few things to check if your car doesn't start. You may be able to save yourself a trip to the mechanic if you can figure out the problem and fix it yourself.

Instructions

    1

    Add gas to the tank in case your gas gauge is broken. An empty gas tank means an engine that won't start, and filling it is an easy fix.

    2

    Look to see if the check-engine light comes on when you turn the key in the ignition. If it does, then the computer that controls your LeBaron's engine is working. If the light doesn't come on, it could mean that the computer is broken or that a wire is disconnected.

    3

    Turn on the ignition and then turn on the windshield wipers. If they are slow, it could indicate a problem with the battery. If your battery is depleted, jump-start the car and then let it run for a few hours to allow the battery to recharge.

    4

    Listen to the sounds your LeBaron is making. According to Cars.com, a banging sound could indicate that there is something seriously wrong with your engine. A whistling sound could mean that a belt is loose. Get the car checked by a mechanic to see what the problem may be.

    5

    Look to see if the oil light is on. If it is, don't drive your LeBaron. Get it to a mechanic right away. Oil problems can be dangerous.

The Window on My 2001 Jeep Grand Cherokee Won't Work

Jeep Grand Cherokee power windows are wired so they can be lowered and raised from the remote switches or the master switch. Each window has a separate motor and window regulator. Some models even have separate fuses and breakers for each window. This setup prevents one stuck window from disabling all the windows. These procedures are general troubleshooting procedures. If you cannot find the problem following these procedures, take your Jeep Grand Cherokee to an automotive shop.

Instructions

    1

    Disengage the window lockout on the driver's side by pushing the button. A disengaged button will stick out farther than an engaged button. The lockout button will keep any window from rolling down from all panels other than the main control panel on the driver's side.

    2

    Pull the number 13 fuse. A burnt or broken fuse needs to be replaced.

    3

    Test for voltage on the rear window lockout switch with a voltmeter if the back windows only operate from the master switch.

    4

    Test the wiring that runs from the fuse panel to the switch for voltage with a voltmeter. The wiring will need to be replaced if power is present at the fuse panel but not at the wiring.

    5

    Test the switch at any inoperable window with a voltmeter if the window is operable from one switch, but not the other. An example of this is when the window works from its own switch but not from the master switch.

    6

    Inspect the wiring for loose or damaged wires if power is present at the switch. Tighten loose connectors or have damaged wiring replaced.

    7

    Remove the door trim if the window is inoperable from both switches. Test the window motor for voltage with a voltmeter, while the window switch is operated.

    8

    Test for power to the motor with a voltmeter. If power is reaching the motor, detach the glass from the window regulator. Slide the glass up and down manually to check for binding inside the door. Replace the window motor if the window moves easily and the regulator is not damaged. .

    9

    Test for voltage to the motor. If no voltage is present check for loose or damaged wiring. Tighten the connectors on loose wiring. Replace damaged wiring.

How to Tell What an Indicator Light on the 2001 Saturn Sl Wagon Is

The indicator light on your 2001 Saturn SI Wagon illuminates on your dash panel. It reads, "Check engine soon." This means that the ECM (electronic control module) determined there is an issue with some component on your vehicle. The ECM uses an OBDII (on-board diagnostics) to monitor engine performance, and when it finds an issue, it stores any one of a thousand codes in the ECM. The code can tell you exactly what is wrong with your Saturn, but without an OBDII code reader, you cannot tell what the service indicator light is.

Instructions

    1

    Plug the OBDII code reader into the OBDII port. The port is under the steering column.

    2

    Turn the ignition key one click clockwise. This turns on your dash lights. It also turns on the OBDII code reader and the ECM.

    3

    Select "Clear codes" on the OBDII code reader and write down the code displayed on the screen.

    4

    Compare the code displayed on the OBDII code reader with the codes listed in the codebook to determine the defective part.

How to Replace a 1990 Acura Legend Tie Rod

The 1990 Acura Legend came standard with a 160-horsepower, 2.7-liter V-6 engine. Power steering was also standard. The power steering system consists of three main components: power steering pump, steering rack and tie rod ends. The tie rod ends connect the front wheels to the steering rack ends. Tie rod ends have a ball and joint socket to allow a full range of movement. Over time, this ball and socket joint can become loose and replacement of the tie rod end is needed.

Instructions

    1

    Loosen the front lug nuts on the wheel needing the new tie rod end, but do not remove them. Raise the front of the vehicle with the floor jack and place the jack stands under the vehicle's sub-frame. Lower the Legend until it is only on the jack stands.

    2

    Remove the front lug nuts and pull the wheel from the Legend.

    3

    Locate the tie rod end, which is directly behind the top of the rotor and continues toward the center of the vehicle. Loosen the jam nut at the end of the tie rod end only a few threads, using a combination wrench.

    4

    Pull the cotter pin, the thin metal pin, from the tie rod end stud, using needle nosed pliers.

    5

    Loosen the tie rod end nut, using a ratchet and socket. Leave the nut attached by only a few threads.

    6

    Hit the tie rod end nut with the hammer until the tie rod end is free from the steering knuckle, the component to which the wheel attaches.

    7

    Remove the tie rod end by turning it counterclockwise. Place the new tie rod end where the old one was and tighten it until it is just a few threads from the jam nut.

    8

    Insert the tie rod end's stud through the steering knuckle and hand-tighten the new nut, included with the tie rod end. Tighten the jam nut, using a combination wrench, and tighten the tie rod end nut with a ratchet and socket.

    9

    Insert the new cotter pin, included with the tie rod end, through the hole in the tie rod end stud. Bend the cotter pin's "legs" in opposite directions, using the needle-nosed pliers, to lock the pin in place.

    10

    Put the front wheel back on the Acura and hand-tighten the lug nuts.

    11

    Raise the Legend off of the jack stands, using the floor jack. Pull the stands from under the Acura and lower it to the ground.

    12

    Tighten the lug nuts, in a crossing pattern, to 80 foot-pounds, using a torque wrench and a socket.

    13

    Drive the vehicle to an alignment shop to have to front end properly aligned. Failure to do so can cause excessive tire wear and inaccurate steering.

How to Check Fault Codes on a Mercury Sable

How to Check Fault Codes on a Mercury Sable

Fault codes can either be an indication of a serious problem, or they can be triggered by something minor, such as a loose or broken gas cap. However, many garages will charge you every time you drive your Mercury Sable in for a diagnostic check. If you are willing to invest in a small piece of hardware, these diagnostic fees can become a thing of the past. To check your Mercury Sable's fault codes, you only need an On Board Diagnostic scanner and a few simple instructions.

Instructions

    1

    Determine which diagnostic scanner you will need. Cars manufactured after 1996 will need an OBD-II scanner while those made before 1996 will need an OBD-I scanner. The two types of scanners are not interchangeable.

    2

    Hook the diagnostic scanner up to the Sable's diagnostic port. This outlet is in the space beneath the dashboard, near the steering column.

    3

    Push the power button on the scanner.

    4

    Turn the key in the ignition to the "Accessories" position but do not crank the engine.

    5

    Wait as the scanner and the Sable's OBD system connect with each other. Once the connection is established, the fault codes should appear on the scanner's screen.

    6

    Turn the scanner and the Sable off then remove the cable from the OBD port by pulling it out.

    7

    Reference the fault code with a listing online or in a shop manual specific to your Sable's model-year. The code will sometimes contain letters, usually designating an area of concern, for example, "P" for "power train."

What Are the Causes of a Clutch Slipping?

The clutch isn't the most complicated mechanism on your car, but it does offer ample opportunity for failure. Most types of failure will come courtesy of normal wear and tear on the vehicle, but operator error has spelled doom for more than one.

Worn-Out Friction Material

    Clutch friction surfaces are just like brake pads in all but shape, and the flywheel is essentially just a one-sided rotor. Clutch material will wear out just like the linings on your brake pads, and where it does, there's slippage. There's no repairing a worn-out clutch disc -- your only option is to replace the disc and possibly have the flywheel machined smooth if the clutch backing material scored grooves in it.

Impurities in the Clutch Disc

    This happens more often than you might think; especially given the clutch's proximity to both the engine's rear main seal and the transmission's front seal. Oil leaking from the engine or transmission will eventually work its way into the friction disc, which soaks it up like a sponge. Following oil impregnation, the disc is worthless and headed for the landfill. Water impregnation can also cause clutch slippage but tends to be temporary unless you've slipped the clutch enough to burn it.

Glazed Friction Material

    This phenomenon is somewhat related to brake fade and happens for the same reasons. Brake fade happens when a driver overheats the brakes by repeatedly flooring them from high speeds. After a severe enough overheating event, the pad material will glaze over and fail to grip the brake rotor. The same thing happens after overheating a clutch through excessive slippage. If you've ever gotten the clutch hot enough to smoke, then odds are that you've permanently fried it.

Malfunctioning Pressure Springs

    The pressure plate springs that hold the clutch disc to the flywheel are just like any other springs in your car -- they will eventually soften through repeated heating and cooling cycles and loose a certain amount of their holding power. This usually takes quite some time -- odds are that you'll wear out the friction material at least twice as fast as the plate springs -- but it is part of normal wear and tear. Spring breakage, on the other hand, isn't as common but does happen.

Scored Flywheel

    Scored and grooved flywheels typically don't happen unless the driver has knowingly allowed the clutch to slip long after the friction material has bid adieu. Machining the flywheel is an option if the grooves aren't too deep, but replacement of the flywheel is mandatory if they are. Don't allow a grooved flywheel to run unchecked; those grooves can create stress risers in the flywheel, which precipitate cracks and a bomb-like flywheel explosion about 6 inches from your right foot.

Selasa, 18 Juni 2013

How to Cancel the Check Engine Light On a 1998 Nissan Altima

Prior to the 1996 government-mandated switch to on-board diagnostics II, every vehicle had its own secret way to pull the codes from the computer, which only the dealerships knew how to perform. Pre-1996 Altimas had a simple-for-the-era process of pulling the codes prior to this changeover. You would turn a screw on the engine control module back and forth, then count the times that the check engine light flashed. With the 1998 Altima having OBD-II, checking and cancelling the check engine light is far more straightforward than the old system.

Instructions

    1

    Adjust the drivers seat as far back as it will go and look under the drivers side of the dashboard to find the on-board diagnostic II connector. This connector is in the same shape as that on the OBD-II scanners plug.

    2

    Plug the OBD-II scanners connector into the Altimas OBD-II diagnostic connector.

    3

    Turn the ignition to the Run position, but do not start the vehicle. Most scanners turn on automatically at this point. If your scanner does not turn on, however, refer to the scanners instructions as to how to turn it on.

    4

    Initiate the scanners Read Codes or Scan Codes feature. This process varies greatly, depending on the brand and style of scanner you use, so refer to the scanners instructions for specifics. Most scanners, however, have a Scan button that you push to start the scanning process.

    5

    Observe as the scanner establishes a connection to your Altima, then begins scanning for codes.

    6

    Watch as the codes that the scanner pulled from your Altimas computer appear on the scanners screen. The codes start with a P and have four numbers behind it, P0400 as an example.

    7

    Start the Erase Codes function of the OBD-II scanner. This process varies greatly depending on the style of scanner used, so refer to the scanners instructions for specifics. Most scanners, however, have a button that reads Erase or an Erase Codes option on the screen that you select and press the Ok button.

    8

    Observe as the scanner goes through its process of deleting the codes from the Altimas computer. Watch the scanners screen for confirmation that the scanner deleted the codes.

    9

    Turn the ignition to the Off position and unplug the scanner from the Altimas OBD-II diagnostic connector.

My PT Cruiser Won't Shift Into Reverse

My PT Cruiser Won't Shift Into Reverse

Like any vehicle transmission, a PT Cruiser transmission is easy to break and expensive to repair. It's important to diagnose a transmission problem properly. Many mechanics would prefer to spend several hours replacing a transmission with a good chance of success rather than spend several hours trying to figure out the problem with only a modest chance of success. There are quite a few things that PT Cruiser owners can do to narrow down the list of potential problems, saving time and money.

Instructions

    1

    Check the transmission fluid level if you have an automatic transmission. The transmission fluid dipstick is located next to the air filter in most PT Cruiser models. It should be checked on a level surface while the engine is still quite warm.

    2

    Try pumping the clutch several times if your PT Cruiser has a manual transmission. You can also try partially releasing the clutch while attempting to shift into reverse. If that doesn't work, turn the engine off and try shifting. If you can shift into reverse while your car is off, your problem likely lies with your clutch and not your transmission.

    3

    Inspect the bushings and linkage underneath the engine. Worn bushings or a bad linkage can prevent the transmission on a PT Cruiser from shifting properly. Chances are good that you'll need special tools to replace them; you're probably better off having an experienced mechanic replace them if needed.

    4

    Take your PT Cruiser to at least two mechanics and ask for an opinion on the problem. Even if both mechanics agree you need a new transmission, you may be able to find a better deal by shopping around.

What Could Be Wrong if My 1994 Mazda 929 Will Not Start?

In order for your 1994 Mazda 929 to start, several things must happen. The battery must have a good charge to turn the starter motor when you turn the key in the ignition and trigger the starter solenoid. Spark plugs must fire and fuel and air must be available in the engine. When these components fail to work in tandem, the car will not start.

Battery

    As batteries age, they lose their ability to hold an electrical charge. This can be exacerbated by long periods without use and extremely hot or cold temperatures. If the Mazda makes a clicking noise when you turn the key but does not turn over, a battery problem is likely. A battery charger or jump cables can be used to get the vehicle started in most instances, but a qualified mechanic should check and replace the battery if necessary.

Starter

    When you turn the key, the starter solenoid switches on, allowing power to run from the battery to the starter motor, which spins and turns over the engine. If you hear a whirring noise that sounds like something spinning very fast, the spring mechanism inside your starter may have worn out. If the battery is fully charged, but nothing at all happens when you turn the key, the starter solenoid may have burned out and need replacement.

Spark Plugs

    Spark plugs, as the name implies, produce a spark inside the engine cylinders to ignite the fuel and keep the engine running. The spark plugs fire in a specific sequence and must be in good shape for the engine to start and run. You can remove the spark plugs with a deep socket wrench or a special spark plug wrench and visually inspect them for proper function and then replace them if necessary.

Fuel System

    An empty fuel tank is a surprisingly common reason why engines fail to start. Assuming there is clean fuel in the tank, problems that prevent fuel from getting to the engine include a burned out fuel pump, a clogged fuel filter and clogged fuel injectors. If the engine turns over strongly but does not catch and start, you can remove a spark plug and smell it to see if gasoline is reaching the engine.

Air Filter

    An engine needs air as well as fuel to run. While it's rare for an air filter to become so clogged that the Mazda won't start, the air filter is easy to inspect, so it's worth looking, especially if the car has been running poorly and getting worse over time. The filter is under a square, black plastic housing in the engine compartment. If it is badly clogged with dirt and debris, replace it.

Climate Control Symptoms

Climate Control Symptoms

The climate control in an automobile is the system that adjusts the air direction, temperature and humidity inside the cab of the vehicle. Besides a comfort feature, the climate control is also a safety feature because of the defrost and humidifying capability. Certain symptoms develop when there is a problem with the climate control.

Cooling Performance

    If the climate control is not cooling the inside the vehicle properly, it is a sign of possible malfunctioning. The compressor can have a low coolant level or too much coolant. If the coolant is low, the thermal expansion valve will be hot or warm to the touch. Adding coolant will correct this symptom. Too much coolant causes the compressor to make a loud noise, as if it is working harder than usual. The automobile's climate control will work well one moment, then work poorly the next when the compressor is overcharged. Removing some of the coolant will correct this problem.

Compressor Clutch

    A compressor clutch is the device that transfers power from the engine to the compressor with a belt and pulley assembly. The clutch stops and starts the compressor in order to control the flow of coolant, in turn controlling the temperature inside the vehicle. The vehicle will not blow air into the cab when the compressor clutch has failed. Check the idler pulley and belt first to ensure that they have been tightened properly. A serpentine belt can stretch and wear over time, so ensure that the belt is not the problem before checking the compressor clutch. Remove the belt and turn the pulley on the front of the compressor. If the compressor makes a grinding noise when you turn the pulley, the compressor clutch is probably the culprit.

Condenser

    The condenser in the climate control system acts like a radiator for the compressor. It pushes hot coolant through a series of tubes so the coolant can be cooled. When there is a problem with the condenser, air will blow into the cab of the vehicle, but the air flow will be light even when the climate control button is placed on the high setting. A noise will also develop if the fins of the condenser are touching the tubes or main body of the condenser. The condenser can also vibrate excessively when this symptom develops. Sometimes leaves, dirt, trash or road debris can attach to the front of the condenser, blocking the air flow and creating poor cooling within the vehicle.

Tank

    The tank of the climate control system holds the coolant or refrigerant. Part of this climate control component also filters out contaminants and removes any moisture built up inside the coolant. Most problems with this tank come in the form of clogs. If there is a clog in the liquid tank, warm air will blow out of the vents and into the cab of the vehicle. Frost can also develop on the bottom of the tank. When too much moisture is in the tank, the airflow inside the cab can change from cold to warm within five to 10 minutes of normal operation.

Minggu, 16 Juni 2013

Fan Belt Symptoms

Fan belts, or alternator drive belts, transfer power to several important parts of the car including air conditioning, power steering and the alternator, according to AutomotiveCare.com. These belts do deteriorate with time and use, however, and eventually may break. This can cause a loss of power or even more serious damage, so it is important to be able to identify the symptoms of a faulty fan belt and to replace or realign it before it fails. There are several common symptoms to look and listen for.

Unusual Sounds

    The most common audible clue of trouble is a loud screeching noise. You may hear this sound just after you start your car, when maneuvering slowly, or after driving through an especially deep puddle. It is a symptom of a loose fan belt, and the longer you hear this screeching sound, the worse condition your fan belt is in. Another potential indicator of a failing fan belt is any rhythmic sound when you are driving. This sound may indicate something embedded in your fan belt. Less common sounds indicative of a failing or incorrectly aligned fan belt include hissing, rumbling, grinding and rattling. You will need to replace or adjust a belt that exhibits any of these symptoms to avoid eventual loss of power to other parts of your car, and possible engine damage.

Dimming Headlights

    You may notice your headlights dimming when the belt is working overly hard to turn the alternator and recharge the battery after starting the car, or when you are placing a heavy load on the power steering by turning at low speeds. This symptom is more common on diesel cars than gas-powered vehicles.

A Tattered Appearance

    Most fan belts in modern cars are serpentine belts and have to snake round a number of different pulleys. This causes the belt to heat up and then harden, which, over time, may cause any number of imperfections in the belt, leading eventually to belt failure. Examine your fan belt for any signs of cracking or fraying. It needs to be replaced immediately if it exhibits these symptoms. Chunking (when parts of the belt have ripped out) also indicates a serious problem. In addition, look carefully for any signs of uneven wear, abrasion, rib separation and gravel penetration. These may be signs of the need to replace or realign. Any contamination with fluids means that the belt may be attracting dirt, which is a problem in itself but also indicates a potentially larger problem with either oil, power steering or coolant leakage.

Sabtu, 15 Juni 2013

How Do I Check the Check Engine Light on a 2003 Chrysler Town and Country 3.8L?

How Do I Check the Check Engine Light on a 2003 Chrysler Town and Country 3.8L?

Chrysler's 2003 Town and Country is a large-sized minivan with front-wheel drive. The 3.8-liter is the standard engine size, with a 20-gallon tank that gets 23 miles to the gallon on the highway. The "Check Engine" signal lights up in the dash when the Chrysler's computer recognizes a malfunction in the engine. A code reflecting that problem is stored for your retrieval, and the light flares up to let you know it's there.

Instructions

    1

    Look under the driver's-side dash for the Assembly Line Diagnostic Link, or ALDL. This 12-to-16-port electrical device is the link to the stored trouble codes in your Chrysler's computer. Pop off the plastic cover to expose the ports.

    2

    Connect the scanner test lead to the ALDL. Turn the scanner on, then turn the ignition key to the "On" position without cranking the engine.

    3

    Read the questions that appear on the scanner's digital screen. Each question is a prompt for information about your vehicle's year, make and model. Answer each prompt.

    4

    Write down the "Check Engine" error codes as they appear on the screen. Each code has a meaning that points to a specific problem detected in the engine. Refer to your Town and Country owner's manual for the code meanings, or click the link in the Resource section for a comprehensive list of Chrysler error codes.

    5

    Address the root of the problem. Pull the codes again. Select the option to reset the computer's code system after the codes are displayed on the screen.

Troubleshooting for a 2000 Volvo S70

Troubleshooting for a 2000 Volvo S70

The S70 sedan by Volvo saw a limited production run, manufactured between the 1998 and 2000 model years. As the successor to the 850 series, the S70 was available in six different trim packages. Data and safety reports gathered from web resources, technical service bulletins and National Highway and Traffic Safety Administration reports show that the typical issues found with the S70 are in the front struts, power windows and the air pump.

Instructions

    1

    Listen for noises while driving over bumpy terrain. If present, replacing the front struts will solve the issue as the upper strut mounts have likely become worn.

    2

    Check the power windows for full functionality. If they only move in a single direction, you'll need to have the master window switch replaced.

    3

    Look for an illuminated "check engine" light on the instrument panel. This may indicate a faulty air pump. Replace the pump to solve this issue.

Jumat, 14 Juni 2013

How to Reduce Window Noise in a Chevy Suburban

How to Reduce Window Noise in a Chevy Suburban

Fuel economy is a major consideration in vehicle design, and aerodynamics play an important part in streamlining the Chevy Suburban to reduce fuel consumption. Unfortunately, there are side-effects. One of which is buffeting and pulsating noises that occur when certain opened window permutations are used. The sunroof also affects this condition. There are ways you can reduce the noise.

Instructions

    1

    Open a front window if either, or both, of the rear windows are open and you experience a buffeting or pulsating noise. This action will reduce the noise. Press the window switch that's located on each door, or use the central control panel on the driver's door that can operate all of the windows. Press the switch to lower the front window, and pull the front of the switch upward to raise the window.

    2

    Open the sunroof if either, or both, of the rear windows are open and you don't want to open a front window. The sunroof is controlled with two switches on the overhead console on the Suburban. Open the sunroof by pressing the left hand switch to the first position.

    3

    Press the switch again when the window noise abates to stop the sunroof opening more.

Kamis, 13 Juni 2013

How to Diagnose a Universal Joint Problem

How to Diagnose a Universal Joint Problem

A universal joint allows a drive shaft on a vehicle to operate at constantly changing angles as the vehicle travels down the road. Rear-wheel drive and four-wheel drive of all kinds have been using universal joints for decades. The universal joint contains small bearings that are subject to wear and failure, so knowing how to diagnose a universal joint problem can prevent getting stranded on the side of the road and facing an expensive tow bill.

Instructions

Diagnosis: Inside the Vehicle

    1

    Get into the driver's seat of the vehicle. Start the vehicle.

    2

    Push the brake pedal down and hold it to prevent the vehicle from moving.

    3

    Move your transmission gear selector into the Drive position and listen for a "clunk" sound. Move the gear selector directly to the Reverse position and listen for a clunk. Moving the gear selector between Drive and Reverse twists the universal joint in opposite directions, so if there is any looseness it may produce an audible clunk sound. Repeat this test as needed. This test will only work with an automatic transmission, not with a manual transmission.

    4

    Drive the vehicle around the block and listen for unusual noises such as squeaking or clunking. Also pay attention to vibrations while moving down the road or shuddering when accelerating from a stop. Any of these things can indicate a universal joint problem, and you should proceed to an under-vehicle inspection.

Diagnosis: Underneath the Vehicle

    5

    Set the parking brake on your vehicle and place wheel chocks on one of the rear tires, one in front and one behind, to prevent the vehicle from moving while you're performing the inspection.

    6

    Place the jack underneath the front of the vehicle. Locate a safe point on the vehicle to place the jack and raise it up far enough so you can fit underneath the vehicle and have plenty of room to access the drive shaft. Once the vehicle is high enough, place jack stands underneath the frame rails in the front, and lower the weight of the vehicle onto the jack stands so that the jack is not supporting the vehicle any longer. If you have an SUV or truck and can fit under the vehicle without jacking it up, skip this step.

    7

    Crawl under the vehicle from the side, right around the midpoint of the vehicle. Bring your trouble light or flashlight with you, and use a creeper or ground cloth to keep clean.

    8

    Locate the drive shaft. It is a long, straight metal tube that extends down the center of the vehicle from the rear of the transmission to the rear differential. On both ends of the drive shaft will be the universal joints. They look like a four-pointed cross, with two fingers from the drive shaft holding on to two points of the cross, and fingers from the rear differential or the transmission holding the other two points.

    9

    Position yourself close to the universal joint on the front of the drive shaft, closest to the transmission. Grab the drive shaft with your hand and twist it back and forth. Using your light, watch the universal joint closely. It should be tight, and you should not see any movement or looseness. Repeat this procedure at the universal joint on the rear of the drive shaft. If you detect any movement or looseness at either universal joint, you should have them repaired or replaced.

How to Troubleshoot Fuses in a 2002 Toyota Tacoma

How to Troubleshoot Fuses in a 2002 Toyota Tacoma

The 2002 Toyota Tacoma comes standard with several in-dash safety features, including warning lights for low oil pressure, low oil levels, low fuel, lights left on and a key left in the ignition. These safety features won't work if the fuses supplying energy aren't functioning. For instance, if the fuse supporting the low fuel light is broken, you won't be aware that you are dangerously low on gas.

Check and troubleshoot the fuses in your 2002 Tacoma often to make sure they are in working order. Replace broken fuses with fuses of compatible amperage strength.

Instructions

Troubleshoot the Fuses with a Fuse Puller

    1

    Locate the fuse panel under the dash of the Tacoma. Remove the plastic cover if it's still intact.

    2

    Pull the fuses with a plastic fuse puller. Use the puller included inside the fuse panel or buy a new one from an auto parts store if the puller is missing. A pair of needle-nose pliers or tweezers will work as substitutes as well.

    3

    Inspect the fuses for breaks. The fuses are made of clear plastic, which makes it easy to spot broken lines inside. Replace broken fuses with new fuses of appropriate strength.

Troubleshoot the Fuses with a Fuse Tester

    4

    Ground the tester to a safe metal source like a metal bolt on the inside of the door or the metal of the door itself. Turn the ignition key to "On" without cranking the engine.

    5

    Place the tip of the fuse tester on the fuses to test them. Each end of the two metal ends on the fuse must be tested because one end will still light up even if a fuse is broken. Testing each end will prevent a false reading.

    6

    Replace any broken fuses with new ones. Check the diagram near or inside the fuse panel for the correct amperage of the fuse and replace it with one strong enough to handle the current going through it.

How to Troubleshoot Convertible Tops

How to Troubleshoot Convertible Tops

Problems with convertible tops generally can be categorized into three groups: electrical, hydraulic and mechanical. Whether your top opens slowly or not at all, there are many different reasons that can cause a convertible top to malfunction. This troubleshooting guide will examine some of the most common issues and look at what could be causing the problem.

Instructions

Slow Top Movement

    1

    Check your fluid levels. There could be a leak in the system such as a leaky pump or cylinder. This would result in a slow moving top.

    2

    Make sure the linkages and hinges are aligned properly. Misaligned linkages can create jerky motions when the top is opened.

    3

    Check the battery. If the top is slow to open, your battery might need to be replaced. Test the battery to make sure it is fully operational.

Deck Lid Won't Raise

    4

    Examine the pump. If the pump is not working, the deck cannot raise. This could be because of low fluid levels in the pump. Add more fluid and check for leaks.

    5

    Make sure the joints in the pump are sufficiently lubricated. Too much friction in this area can cause the pump to stall.

    6

    Examine the tray fold switch. If this switch is open, the top cannot open.

Top Won't Raise or Lower

    7

    Examine the pump to check whether it is functioning properly. If not, it could be because of low fluid in the pump. Add more fluid, and check for leaks in the area.

    8

    Check the joints on the pump to see whether they are lubricated properly. Friction in this area could cause the pump to stall.

    9

    Examine the tray extend switch and the left hinge switch. If these switches are bad, the top will not raise or lower.

Deck Lid Won't Lock or Unlock

    10

    Check the tray fold switch. If this is open, the deck lid will not lock or unlock. Also, examine the main 50-amp circuit breaker to see whether it is open.

    11

    Examine the transmission selector lever to see that it is set to "park" or "neutral." The lid cannot unlock or lock if the transmission is not set to these settings.

    12

    Check the neutral switch at the base of the steering column to see whether it is maladjusted, and check the deck motor to see whether it is still functioning.

Rabu, 12 Juni 2013

How to Troubleshoot a 2008 Chrysler Crossfire

How to Troubleshoot a 2008 Chrysler Crossfire

A 2008 Chrysler Crossfire can develop problems from wear and tear. This can lead to issues such as poor acceleration, engine misfiring, erratic timing and other problems. Certain parts of the Crossfire's engine may be hard to reach due to inconvenient locations. For example, accessing the knock sensor requires the removal of many other components. For this reason, the On-Board Diagnostic system can be of great assistance. It can lead you to the source of a problem a little more quickly than investigating by trial and error.

Instructions

    1

    Consult the owner's manual for the scanner for generic OBD-II coding definitions. There should be a list, and in many cases, it is an appendix unto itself. Find a list of Chrysler's specific, supplemental codes online and print them out.

    2

    Locate the Data Link Connection under the Crossfire's dashboard on the left side.

    3

    Connect the OBD-II code reader's cable to the DLC outlet. Scanners operate differently by brand so always defer to the instructions in the code reader's handbook.

    4

    Turn the code reader on if it is not programmed to auto-start. Insert your key into the Crossfire's ignition and turn to it to the "Accessories" position. If your brand of code reader requires the engine cranked, start the engine.

    5

    Look up the OBD-II code definitions and descriptions once they appear on the code reader. Compile a list in order of importance, giving deference to the trouble codes. These malfunctions have happened frequently, and they are the cause of the check engine light activating. Also, make note of all the "pending" codes. These malfunctions have happened but not as frequently. They could be recent problems that will eventually turn into trouble codes.

    6

    Turn the Crossfire off and remove its key from the ignition. Turn the code reader off and remove its cable from the DLC.

Selasa, 11 Juni 2013

Volvo XC90 Diagnostic Tools

If there is something wrong with your Volvo XC90, you will need to find out how to fix the problem. Diagnostic scan tools help you with this, since these tools run tests on your system and communicate with your on-board diagnostic (OBD) system. You will need one that works for European vehicles like your Volvo XC90, a seven-passenger sports utility vehicle.

Autologic

    The Autologic Diagnostics for Volvo is for all types of Volvo vehicles. It is a handheld, touch screen tool that uses a graphical user interface (GUI), which is a type of interface that allows you to run commands using radio buttons and checkboxes, as opposed to programming or writing code. This device is available in different languages, including English, Polish, German and Dutch. It allows you to pull up diagnostic trouble code (DTC) data and clear those codes once you correct the problem. You can also update the engine control unit (ECU) and the engine throttle control module (ETM). As of 2010, this product starts at around $650.

Scan Tool

    The Baum Tools DS2020 and DS2021 scan tools run diagnostic tests on domestic and foreign vehicles, including Mercedes Benz, Audi, Volkswagen and Volvo. You can use these handheld scan tools on Volvos made between 1989 and 2008. These tools are controller area network (CAN) compliant; they can run tests on the following systems: airbag, transmission, anti-lock brake system (ABS), engine, climate control, transmission and instrument cluster. You can use these tools to read and clear DTCs, and you can reset your instrument cluster. You can purchase or lease these tools, which, in 2010, start at approximately $330.

AutoEnginuity

    This scan tool is for both foreign and domestic vehicles. It is compatible with European OBD (EOBD) IV and OBD-II vehicles. This tool allows you to capture data from sensors as you are operating the vehicle, and you can view and clear DTCs. Connect this device to your computer via a universal serial bus 2.0 connection, and read data in different languages, including Spanish, English, German and Hungarian. You can also run tests on your gravitational forces (G forces), horsepower, torque, vehicle speed and boost pressure, and you can graphically compare speed versus time. As of 2010, this product starts at approximately $400.